Claudia Mellado e-mail(Login required)

Main Article Content


Claudia Mellado e-mail(Login required)


Using a representative survey of Chilean journalists (n= 570) and data collected from each news media organization (n= 114), this paper examines individual and organizational effects on professional role conceptions via hierarchical linear modeling. The findings demonstrate the existence of significant contextual effects on the importance that journalists give to their different functions in society, although not all professional roles are equally affected in form and magnitude by the news media context. This study shows that the journalism’s more political roles are modeled for an interrelation between individual and organizational factors, where journalists’ background and beliefs tend to be more predictive than news media characteristics. In turn, professional functions linked to the need of the public and to the commercialization of news, appeared to be more tied to the structural characteristics of the news organizations where the journalists belong. The results also reveal that individual and organizational political factors predict the majority of the professional roles, while ownership and media type do not have any direct influence on the journalists’ attitudes.


AKHAVAN-MAJID, Roya and BOUDREAU, Timothy, “Chain ownership, organizational size, and editorial role conception”, Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, vol. 72, n° 4, 1995, pp. 863-873.

BEAM, Randal, “Journalism professionalism as an organizational-level concept”, Journalism Monographs, vol. 121, 1990, pp. 1-43.

BOURDIEU, Pierre, “Social space and symbolic power”, Sociological Theory, vol. 7, n° 1, 1989, pp. 14-25.

CANEL, María José and SÁDABA, Teresa, “La investigación académica sobre las actitudes profesionales de los periodistas. Una descripción del estado de la cuestión”, Comunicación y Sociedad, vol. XII, n° 2, 1999, pp. 9-32.

CANEL, María José and PIQUÉ, Antoni, “Journalists in emerging democracies: The case of Spain”, in WEAVER, David (ed.), The global journalist: News people around the world, Hampton Press, Cresskill, NJ, 1998, pp. 299-319.

CHAN, Joseph, LEE, Paul and LEE, Chin-Chuan, “East Meets West: Hong Kong Journalists in Transition”, in WEAVER, David (ed.), The global journalist: News people around the world, Hampton Press, Cresskill, NJ, 1998, pp. 31-54.

CHEN, Chongshan, ZHU, Jian-Hua and WU, Wei, “The Chinese journalist”, in WEAVER, David (ed.), The global journalist: News people around the world, Hampton Press, Cresskill, NJ, 1998, pp. 9-30.

COHEN, Bernard, The press and foreign policy, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1963.

CURRAN, James and PARK, Myung-Jin, De-Westernizing Media Studies, Routledge, London, 2000.

Deuze, Mark, “National News Cultures: A comparison of Dutch, German, British, Australian and U.S. journalists”, Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, vol. 79, n° 1, 2002, pp. 134-149.

DONSBACH, Wolfgang, “Factors behind journalists’ professional behavior. A psychological approach to Journalism Research”, in LÖFFELHOLZ Martin and WEAVER, David (eds.) Global journalism research: Theories, methods, findings, future, Blackwell, New York, 2008, pp. 65-78.

FLEGEL, Ruth and CHAFFEE, Steve, “Influences of editors, readers, and personal influences on reporters”, Journalism Quarterly, vol. 48, n° 4, 1971, pp. 645-651.

GANS, Herbert, Deciding what’s news, Pantheon Books, New York, 1979.

GAUNT, Philip, Choosing the news: Profit factor in news selection, Greenwood Press, New York, 1990.

GEORGE, Lisa, “What’s Fit to Print: The effect of ownership concentration on product variety in daily newspaper markets”, Information Economics and Policy, vol. 19, n° 3-4, 2007, pp. 285-303.

GRABER, Doris, Mass Media and American Politics, CQ Press, Washington (DC), 2002.

GRONEMEYER, María Elena, “Periodistas chilenos: El reto de formar profesionales autónomos e independientes”, Cuadernos de Información, vol. 15, 2002, pp. 53-70.

HALLIN, Daniel and MANCINI, Paolo, Comparing media systems: Three models of media and politics, Cambridge University Press, New York, 2004.

HANITZSCH, Thomas, HANUSCH, Folker, MELLADO, Claudia et al, “Mapping Journalism Cultures across Nations: A Comparative Study of 18 Countries”, Journalism Studies, vol. 12, n° 4, 2011, pp. 273-293.

HANITZSCH, Thomas, ANIKINA, María, BERGANZA, Rosa et al, “Modeling perceived influences on journalism: Evidence from a cross-national survey of journalists”, Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, vol. 87, n° 1, 2010, pp. 7-24.

Hanitzsch, Thomas, “Deconstructing Journalism Culture: Towards a universal theory”, Communication Theory, vol. 17, n° 4, 2007, pp. 367-385.

HAYES, Andrew, “A Primer on multilevel modeling”, Human Communication Research, vol. 32, n° 4, 2006, pp. 385-410.

HENNINGHAM, John, “Australian journalists”, in WEAVER, David (ed.), The global journalist: News people around the world, Hampton Press, Cresskill, NJ, 1998, pp. 91-107.

HOX, Joop, Multilevel Analysis: Techniques and Applications, Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ, 2002.

JANOWITZ, Morris, “Professional Models in Journalism: The Gatekeeper and the Advocate”, Journalism Quarterly, vol. 52, 1975, pp. 618-626, 662.

JOHNSTONE, John, W.C., SLAWSKI, Edward, J. and BOWMAN, William, The news people. A Sociological portrait of American Journalists and their work, University of Illinois Press, Urbana, IL, 1976.

JOSEPHI, Beate, “Journalism In The Global Age: Between Normative and Empirical”, International Communication Gazette, vol. 67, n° 6, 2005, pp. 575-590.

KIM, Hun Shik, “Gatekeeping international news: An attitudinal profile of U.S. television journalists”, Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, vol. 46, n° 3, 2002, pp. 431-453.

KÖCHER, Renate, “Bloodhounds or Missionaries: Role definitions of German and British journalists”, European Journal of Communication, vol. 1, n° 3, 1986, pp. 43-64.

McMANUS, John, Market Driven Journalism: Let Citizen Beware?, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, 1994.

McQUAIL, Dennis, McQuail’s mass communication theory, Sage, London, 2000.

MELLADO, Claudia, “The Chilean journalist”, in WEAVER, David and WILLNAT, Lars (eds.), The Global Journalist in the 21st Century: News People Around the World. Routledge, New York, 2012 (forthcoming).

MELLADO, Claudia, SALINAS, Paulina, DEL VALLE, Carlos and GONZÁLEZ, Gustavo, “Mercado laboral y perfil del periodista y educador de periodismo en Chile: Estudio comparativo de las regiones de Antofagasta, Biobío, Araucanía y Metropolitana”, Cuadernos de información, vol. 26, n° 1, 2010, pp. 45-64.

MÖNCKEBERG, María Olivia, Los magnates de la prensa. Concentración de los medios de comunicación en Chile, Random House, Santiago de Chile, 2009.

NORRIS, Pipa and ODUGBEMI, Sina, “The Roles of the News Media in the Governance Agenda: Watch-dogs, Agenda-Setters”, paper presented at the Harvard-World Bank Workshop The roles of the news media in the Governance Reform Agenda, Cambrigde, MA, 2008.

PAEK, Hye-Jin, YOON, So-Hyang, and SHAH, Dhavan, “Local news, social integration, and community participation: Hierarchical linear modeling of contextual and crosslevel effects”, Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, vol. 82, n° 2, 2005, pp. 587- 606.

PAN, Zhongdang and McLEOD, Jack, “Multilevel analysis in mass communication research”, Communication Research, vol. 18, n° 2, 1991, pp. 140-173.

PATTERSON, Thomas and DONSBACH, Wolfgang, “News Decisions: Journalists as partisan actors”, Political Communication, vol. 13, n° 4, 1996, pp. 455-468.

PLAISANCE, Patrick and SKEWES, Elizabeth, “Personal and professional dimensions of news work: exploring the link between journalists’ values and roles”, Journalism & Mass Communciation Quarterly, vol. 80, n° 4, 2003, pp. 833-848.

PRESTON, Paschal, Making the news: Journalism and news cultures in Europe, Routledge, London, 2009.

RAMAPRASAD, Jyotika and KELLY, James, “Reporting the news from the world’s rooftop: A survey of Nepalese journalists”, International Communication Gazette, vol. 65, n° 3, 2003, pp. 291-315.

RAUDENBUSH, Stephen, BRYK, Antony and CONGDON, Richard, HLM 6 for Windows, Scientific Software International, Inc, Lincolnwood, IL, 2004.

SHOEMAKER, Pamela and REESSE, Stephen, Mediating the message: Theories of influence on mass media content, Longman, White Plains, NY, 1996.

SLATER, Michael, SNYDER, Leslie and HAYES, Andrew, “Thinking and Modeling at Multiple Levels: The Potential Contribution of Multilevel Modeling to Communication Theory and Research”, Human Communication Research, vol. 32, n° 4, 2006, pp. 375-384.

SNIJDERS, Tom and BOSKER, Roel, Multilevel analysis: An introduction to basic and advanced multilevel modeling, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, 1999.

SPARKS, Collin, “Introduction: The Panic over Tabloid News”, in SPARKS, Collin and TULLOCH, John (eds.), Tabloid Tales:Global Debates Over Media Standards, Rowman & Littlefield, London, 2000, pp. 1-40.

STARCK, Ken and SOLOSKI, John, “Effect of reporter predisposicion in covering controversial story”, Journalism Quarterly, vol. 54, 1977, pp. 120-125.

VOAKES, Paul, “Civic Duties: Newspaper Journalists’ Views on Public Journalism”, Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, vol. 76, n° 4, 1999, pp. 756-774.

VOAKES, Paul, “Social ifluences on journalists’ decision making in ethical situations”, Journal of Mass Media Ethics, vol. 12, n° 1, 1997, pp. 18-35.

WEAVER, David, BEAM, Randal, BROWNLEE, Bonnie, VOAKES, Paul and WILHOIT, Cleveland, The American Journalist in the 21st Century: U.S. News People at the Dawn of a New Millenium, Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ, 2007.

WEAVER, David, “Journalists around the world: Commonalities and differences”, in WEAVER, David (ed.), The global journalist: News people around the world, Hampton Press, Cresskill, NJ, 1998, pp. 455-480.

WEAVER, David and WILHOIT, Cleveland, The American Journalist in the 1990s: U.S. News People and the End of an Era, Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ, 1996.

WEAVER, David and WILHOIT, Cleveland, The American Journalist. A portrait of U.S. News People and Their Work, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, IN, 1986.

WEISCHENBERG, Siegfried, LOEFFELHOLZ, Martin and SCHOLL, Armin, “Journalism in Germany”, in WEAVER, David (ed.), The global journalist: News people around the world, Hampton Press, Cresskill, NJ, 1998, pp. 229-256.

WILKE, Jürgen, “Journalists in Chile, Ecuador and México”, in WEAVER, David (ed.), The Global Journalist News People Around the World, Hampton Press, Cresskill, NJ, 1998, pp. 433-452.

WU, Wei, WEAVER, David and Johnson, Owen W., “Professional roles of Russian, and U.S. journalists: A comparative study”, Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, vol. 73, n° 3, 1996, pp. 534-548.

ZHU, Jian-Hua, WEAVER, David, LO, Ven-hwei, CHEN, Chongshan, and WU, Wei, “Individual, Organizational, and Societal Influences on Media Role Perceptions: A comparative study of journalists in China, Taiwan, and the United States”, Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, vol. 74, n° 1, 1997, pp. 84-96.


Search GoogleScholar


Article Details