The use of blogs as social media tools of political communication: citizen journalism and public opinion 2.0.
Main Article Content
Adamic, L. A. & Glance, N. (2005). The political blogosphere and the 2004 US election: divided they blog. Proceedings of the 3rd international workshop on Link discovery, 36-43. https://doi.org/10.1145/1134271.1134277
Agarwal, S. D. & Barthel, M. L. (2013). The friendly barbarians: Professional norms and work routines of online journalists in the United States. Journalism, 16(3), 376-391. https:// doi.org/10.1177/1464884913511565
Ahuja, R., Michels, T., Walker, M. & Weissbuch, M. (2007). Teen Perceptions of Disclosure in Buzz Marketing. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 24(3), 151-159. https://doi.org/10.1108/ 07363760710746157
Andrews, P. (2003). Is Blogging Journalism? Weblogs and Journalism. Nieman Reports, 57(3), 63-64.
Atton, C. (2002). Alternative Media. London: Sage.
Baggetun, R. & Wasson, B. (2006). Self-regulated learning and open writing. European Journal of Education, 41(3-4), 453-472. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1465-3435.2006.00276.x
Baumer, E., Sueyoshi, M. & Tomlinson, B. (2008). Exploring the role of the reader in the activity of blogging. ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, Florence, 5-10 April, 1111-1120. https://doi.org/10.1145/1357054.1357228
Bennett, W. L. (2008). Civic Life Online: Learning How Digital Media Can Engage Youth. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Berman, P. S. (2003). The Internet, Community Definition and the Social Meaning of Legal Jurisdiction. In B. E. Kolko (Ed.), Virtual Publics: Policy and Community in an Electronic Age (pp. 49-82). New York: Columbia University Press.
Bigi, A. (2013). Viral political communication and readability: An analysis of an Italian political blog. Journal of Public Affairs, 13(2), 209-217. https://doi.org/10.1002/pa.1476
Blood, R. (2003). Weblogs and Journalism: Do They Connect? Nieman Reports, 57, 61-63. Blumenthal, S. (1980). The Permanent Campaign. Boston:
Beacon. Burson-Marsteller (2000). The e-Fluentials. New York: Burson-Marsteller.
Bruno, N. (2011). Tweet first, verify later? How real-time information is changing the coverage of worldwide crisis events. Oxford: Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism, University of Oxford.
Bruns, A., Burgess, J., Crawford, K. & Shaw, F. (2012). #qldfloods and @QPSMedia: Crisis Communication on Twitter in the 2011 South East Queensland Floods. Brisbane: ARC Centre of Excellence for Creative Industries and Innovation.
Bruns, A. & Highfield, T. (2012). Blogs, Twitter and breaking news: The Produsage of citizen journalism. En R. Lind (Ed.), Produsing Theory in a Digital World: The Intersection of Audiences and Production in Contemporary Theory (pp. 15-32). New York: Peter Lang.
Butler, P. & Collins, N. (1994). Political Marketing: Structure and Process. European Journal of Marketing, 28(1), 19-34. https://doi.org/10.1108/03090569410049154
Casero-Ripollés, A., Fernández-Beaumont, J. & García Santamaría, J. V. (2015). The politicisation of journalism in Spain: three obstacles to the professional autonomy of journalists. Anàlisi, 53, 95-109. https://doi.org/10.7238/a.v0i53.2622
Castells, M. (2008). The new public sphere: Global civil society, communication networks and global governance. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 616(1), 78-93. https://doi.org/10.1177/0002716207311877
Castells, M. (2009). Communication Power. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Cogburn, D. & Espinoza-Vasquez, F. (2011). From networked nominee to networked nation: Examining the impact of web 2.0 and social media on political participation and civic engagement in the 2008 Obama campaign. Journal of Political Marketing, 10(1-2), 189- 213. https://doi.org/10.1080/15377857.2011.540224 Corey, L. (1971). People Who Claim to Be Opinion Leaders: Identifying Their Characteristics by Self-Report. Journal of Marketing, 35, 48-58. https://doi.org/10.2307/1250457
Criado, J. I. & García Alonso, R. (2012). ¿Democracia 2.0? Un análisis del potencial deliberativo de la blogosfera política. Revista de Estudios Políticos, 155, enero-marzo, 71- 99.
Criado, J. I. & Martínez Fuentes, G. (2009). ‘Mayors’ usage of blogs in local election campaign: the Spanisg case study. International Journal of Electronic Governance, 3(4), 395-413. https://doi.org/10.1504/ijeg.2010.038608
Chadwick, A. (2008). Web 2.0: New challenges for the study of e-democracy in an era of informational exuberance. Journal of Law and Policy for the Information Society, 5(1), 9- 41.
Chomsky, N. (1989). Necessary Illusions: Thought Control in Democratic Societies. Boston, MA: South End Press.
Dellarocas, C. (2003). The digitalization of word of mouth: Promise and challenges of online feedback mechanisms. Management Science, 49(10), 1407-1424. https://doi.org/10.1287/ mnsc.49.10.1407.17308
Dichter, E. (1966). How Word of Mouth Advertising Works. Harvard Business Review, 44, 147- 166.
Downing, J. (2003). Audiences and readers of alternative media: The absent lure of the virtually unknown. Media, Culture & Society, 25, 625-645. https://doi.org/10.1177/ 01634437030255004
Drezner, D. & Farrell, H. (2004). The Power and Politics of Blogs. American Political Science Association, Working paper.
Du, H. & Wagner, C. (2006). Weblog Success: Exploring the Role of Technology. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 64, 789-798. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.ijhcs.2006.04.002
Earl, J. & Kimport, K. (2011). Digitally enabled social change: Activism in the Internet age. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Ekdale, B., Namkoong, K., Fung, T. K. F. & Perlmutter, D. D. (2010). Why blog? (them and now): Exploring the motivations for blogging by popular American political bloggers. New Media & Society, 12(2), 217-234. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444809341440
Farrell, H. & Drezner, D. (2008). The power and politics of blogs. Public Choice, 134, 15-30. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11127-007-9198-1
Forstner, G. & Bales, J. (1992). Building Dialogue into the Public Consultation Process. Public Relations Quarterly, 37(3), 31-35.
Fox, S. & Lenhart, A. (2006). Bloggers: A Portrait of the Internet’s New Storytellers. Retrieved from www.pewinternet.org.
Fumero, A. & Roca, G. (2007). Web 2.0. Madrid: Fundación Orange.
Gallo, J. (2004). Weblog Journalism: Between Infiltration and Integration. In L. Gurak, S. Antonijevic, L. Johnson, C. Ratliff & J. Reyman (Eds.), Into the Blogosphere: Rhetoric, Community and Culture of Weblogs. Retrieved from: blog.lib.umn.edu/blogosphere/ weblog_journalism.html
Garrett, K. (2006). Protest in information society: A review of literature on social movements and new ICTs. Information, Communication & Society, 9(2), 202-224. https://doi.org/ 10.1080/13691180600630773
Gil de Zúñiga, H., Molyneux, L. & Zheng, P. (2014). Social Media, Political Expression and Political Participation: Panel Analysis of Lagged and Concurrent Relationships. Journal of Communication, 64, 612-634. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcom.12103
Gillmor, D. (2004). We the Media: Grassroots Journalism by the People, for the People. Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly.
Grossman, L. (2004). Meet Joe Blog. Time, 163(25), 64-70.
Habermas, J. (1998). Facticidad y validez. Madrid: Trotta. Hermida, A. (2010). From TV to Twitter: How ambient news became ambient journalism. M/C Journal, 13(2). Retrieved from http://www.journal.media-culture.org.au/ index.php/mcjournal/article/viewArticle/220
Hilgartner, S. & Bosk, C. (1988). The Rise and Fall of Social Problems: A Public Arenas Model. The American Journal of Sociology, 94, 53-78. https://doi.org/10.1086/228951
Hsu, C. L. & Lin, J. (2008). Acceptance of Blog Usage: The Roles of Technology Acceptance, Social Influence and Knowledge Sharing Motivation. Information & Management, 45, 65- 74. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.im.2007.11.001
Johnson, T. J. & Kaye, B. K. (2004). Wag the blog: How reliance on traditional media and the Internet influence. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 81(3), 622-642. https://doi.org/10.1177/107769900408100310
Johnson, T. J. & Kaye, B. K. (2014). Credibility of social network sites for political information among politically interested Internet users. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 19, 957-974. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcc4.12084
Kabadayi, O. (2014). Blogging is dead, long live blogging. The Guardian, July, 16th.
Kahn, R. & Kellner, D. (2004). New Media and Internet Activism: From the ‘Battle of Seattle’ to Blogging. New Media & Society, 6(1), 87-95. https://doi.org/10.1177/1461444804039908
Karlsson, M. & Åström, J. (2016). The political blog space: A new arena for political representation? New Media & Society, 18(3), 465-483. https://doi.org/10.1177/ 1461444814543990
Kenix, L. (2009). Blogs as Alternative. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 14, 790- 822. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1083-6101.2009.01471.x
Kim, J. Y., Kiousis, S. & Molleda, J. C. (2015). Use of affect in blog communication: Trust, credibility and authenticity. Public Relations Review, 41, 504-507. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.pubrev.2015.07.002.
Kirby, J. & Marsden, P. (2006). Connected Marketing the Viral, Buzz and Word of Mouth Revolution, 1st Ed. Oxford: Elsevier.
Klinger, U. & Svensson, J. (2015). The emergence of network media logic in political communication. New Media & Society, 17(8), 1241-1257. https://doi.org/10.1177/ 1461444814522952
Kornblum, J. (2003). War Brings a Surge of Traffic on the Net. Usa Today, March, 26th.
Lasica, J. D. (2003). Blogs and journalism need each other. Nieman Reports, 57(3), 70-74.
Lazarsfeld, P., Berelson, B. & Gaudet, H. (1944). The People’s Choice. New York: Columbia University Press.
Lim, M. (2012). Clicks, cabs and coffee houses: Social media and oppositional movements in Egypt 2004-2011. Journal of Communication, 62(2), 231-248. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460- 2466.2012.01628.x
Maratea, R. (2008). The e-Rise and Fall of Social Problems: The Blogosphere as a Public Arena. Social Problems, 55(1), 139-160. https://doi.org/10.1525/sp.2008.55.1.139
McCombs, M. (2004). Setting the agenda: The mass media and public opinion. Malden, MA: Polity.
McKenna, K. & Bargh, J. (2000). Plan 9 from Cyberspace: The Implications of the Internet for Personality and Social Psychology. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 4, 57-75. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327957pspr0401_6
Menzie, K. (2006). Building Online Relationships: Relationship Marketing and Social Presence as Foundations for a University Library Blog. M.S. Kansas State University, Doctoral Thesis.
Meraz, S. (2007). The Networked Political Blogosphere and Mass Media: Understanding How Agendas Are Formed, Framed and Transferred in the Emerging New Media Environment. University of Texas, Doctoral Thesis.
Micó, J. L. & Casero-Ripollés, A. (2014). Political activism online: organization and media relations in the case of 15M in Spain. Information, Communication & Society, 17(7), 858- 871. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369118x.2013.830634
Murthy, D. (2011). Twitter: Microphone for the masses? Media, Culture and Society, 33(5), 779- 789. https://doi.org/10.1177/0163443711404744
Murugesan, S. (2007). Understanding Web 2.0. IT Pro, July-August, 34-41.
Newman, N., Dutton, W. H. & Blank, G. (2012). Social media in the changing ecology of news: The Fourth and Fifth Estates in Britain. International Journal of Internet Science, 7(1), 6- 22. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1826647
Nguyen, A. (2006). Journalism in the wake of participatory publishing. Australian Journalism Review, 28(1), 47-59.
Nimmo, D. (1999). The permanent campaign: Marketing as a government tool. In B. I. Newman (Ed.), Handbook of Political Marketing (pp. 73-86). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Nocera, J. (2002). Ethnography and Hermeneutics in Cybercultural Research Accessing IRC Virtual Communities. Journal of Computer Mediated Communication, 7, 2. https:// doi.org/10.1111/j.1083-6101.2002.tb00146.x
Orihuela, J. L. (2006). La revolución de los blogs. Cuando las bitácoras se convirtieron en el medio de comunicación de la gente. Madrid: La Esfera de los Libros.
Papic, M. & Noonan, S. (2011). Social media as tool for protest. Sitrep, 71, 12-15.
Park, H. W. & Jankowski, N. (2008). A hyperlink network analysis of citizen blogs in South Korean politics. Javnost-The Public, 15(2), 57-74. https://doi.org/10.1080/ 13183222.2008.11008970
Putnam, R. (2000). Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York:
Simon and Schuster. Reuters Institute (2015). Reuters Institute Digital News Report 2015. Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism, University of Oxford.
Rheingold, H. (2002). Smart Mobs: The next social revolution. Cambridge, MA: Basic Books.
Richins, M. & Root-Shaffer, T. (1988). The Role of Involvement and Opinion Leadership in Consumer Word-Of-Mouth: An Implicit Model Made Explicit. Advances in Consumer Research, 15, 32-36.
Savigny, H. & Temple, M. (2010). Political marketing models: the curious incident of the dog that doesn’t bark. Political Studies, 58(5), 1049-1064. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467- 9248.2010.00830
Simon, D. (2009). The Future of Journalism. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation: Subcommittee on Communications, Technology and the Internet Hearing on the Future of Journalism, 6th May.
Singer, J. (2006). Journalists and news bloggers: Complements, contradictions and challenges. In A. Bruns & J. Jacobs (Eds.), Uses of blogs (pp. 23-32). New York: Peter Lang.
Sunstein, C. (2001). Republic.com. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Terdiman, D. (2004). Bloggers Suffer Burnout. Wired, July, 8th.
Tremayne, M. (2007). Introduction: Examining the blog-media relationship. In M. Tremayne (Ed.), Blogging, citizenship and the future of media (pp. 3-20). New York: Routledge.
Valera Ordaz, L. (2015). Building the news media agenda: Spanish political parties’ influence on traditional media and blogosphere agendas during 2011 electoral campaign. Communication & Society, 28(3), 115-134. https://doi.org/10.15581/003.28.3.115-134
Van Fossen, P. & Berson, M. (2008). The electronic republic? The impact of technology on education for citizenship. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press.
Van Raaij, E. & Stoelhorst, J. W. (2008). The Implementation of a Market Orientation: A Review and Integration of the Contributions to Date. European Journal of Marketing, 42(11-12), 1265-1293. https://doi.org/10.1108/03090560810903673 Verdú, V. (2005). Yo y tú, objetos de lujo. Madrid: Taurus.
Vis, F. (2013). Twitter as a reporting tool for breaking news. Digital Journalism, 1(1), 27-47. https://doi.org/10.1080/21670811.2012.741316
Voicu, C. G. (2015). Weblogging: A technological framework mediated by the self. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 187, 211-216. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.03.040
Volokh, E. (2003). The Fence. Retrieved from http://www.volokh.com, 30 September.
Wilde, E. (2007). Deconstructing Blogs. Online Information Review, 32(3), 401-414. https:// doi.org/10.1108/14684520810889691
Woodly, D. (2008). New competencies in democratic communication? Blogs, agenda-setting and political participation. Public Choice, 134(1-2), 109-123. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11127- 007-9204-7
Woo-Young, C. & Park, H. W. (2012). The network structure of the Korean blogosphere. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 17, 216-230. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1083- 6101.2011.01567.x
Wright, J. (2006). Blog Marketing: The Revolutionary New Way to Increase Sales, Build Your Brand and Get Exceptional Results. New York: McGraw-Hill.
Yingan, C., Xue, L. & Xin, S. (2012). The Empirical Study of Polarization in Blog Communication. 2012 International Conference on Communication Systems and Network Technologies, 415-418. https://doi.org/10.1109/csnt.2012.96
Zafiropoulos, K., Vrana, V. & Vagianos, D. (2012). Bloggers’ Community Characteristics and Influence within Greek Political Blogosphere. Future Internet, 4, 396-412. https:// doi.org/10.3390/fi4020396.
By submitting the article for evaluation and subsequent publication in Communication & Society, the AUTHOR exclusively assigns the rights of public communication, reproduction, distribution and sale for commercial exploitation to the University of Navarra through its Publications Service, for the maximum legal term in force -the entire life of the author and seventy years after his death or declaration of death-, in any country, and in any of the current and future edition modalities, both in print and electronic versions.
In the event that the article is not accepted for publication , this transfer of rights lapses with the communication of the refusal to the AUTHOR.
The AUTHOR affirms that the article is unpublished, that it has not been sent simultaneously to another publication medium and that the rights have not been transferred exclusively previously. He is responsible to the University of Navarra through its Publications Service for the authorship and originality of his work, as well as for all pecuniary charges that may arise for the University of Navarra through its Publications Service, in favor of third parties due to actions, claims or conflicts arising from the breach of obligations by the AUTHOR.