Jorge Latorre-Izquierdo e-mail(Login required) , Marcos Jiménez-González e-mail(Login required) , Clare-Elizabeth Cannon e-mail(Login required)

Main Article Content

Authors

Jorge Latorre-Izquierdo e-mail(Login required)
Marcos Jiménez-González e-mail(Login required)
Clare-Elizabeth Cannon e-mail(Login required)

Abstract

86

New York’s Rockefeller Center is one of most symbolically rich places in the world, although few of its millions of visitors stop to reflect on what its images of power really mean. In the form of an Atlantean mythological allegory, Rockefeller Center was conceived as symbolic propaganda for capitalist, liberal values implicit in both the ‘American Dream’ and the ideology espoused by the Rockefeller family. It embodies the utopia of progress and science that promotes the freedom of the individual and the free movement of capital. Due to ideological clashes –or the vagaries of fate– the Catalan José María Sert was the artist to ultimately complete the most eloquent mural in the main building, a mural which had formerly been painted by Diego de Rivera, and entitled Man at the Crossroads. Sert was a muralist who had previously worked on the scenographic illustration of Manuel de Falla’s Atlántida, capturing some of the motifs that inspired that great cantata based on poetic texts by Jacint Verdaguer. That earlier work is reflected in the lobby of Rockefeller Center’s main building. While Diego de Rivera’s censored frescoes have been studied prolifically, little attention has been paid to Sert’s paradoxical reading of the same subjects. In this article, we analyse the history of the Atlantean Mediterranean literary myth in relation to Spain, the use John D. Rockefeller Jr. made of them in his emblematic urbanistic ensemble, and also the peculiar reading that the Catalan muralist made of these themes of Atlantis in relation to capitalism.

Keywords

Atlantis, mythology, Rockefeller Center, Aesthetic ideology, José María Sert, Manuel de Falla

References

AA. VV. (2003). Verdaguer, un poeta genial, Catalogue of the exhibition commemorating the centenary of the death of Jacint Verdaguer (1902-2002), Barcelona: Biblioteca de Catalunya.

Caño Díaz, H. (2018). Del objetivismo de Ayn Rand a los cómics de Steve Ditko. Perspectiva contemporánea del héroe en Estados Unidos. Doctoral Thesis. Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha.

De Lubac, H. (1993). At the Service of the Church. San Francisco: Ignatius Press.

De Persia, J. (2014). Atlantis, a on ets…? Quodlibet: revista de especialización musical, 55, 101-131. Retrieved from https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/288214321.pdf

De Sert, F. (1987) The World of José María Sert. Barcelona: Anagrama.

Devos R., Ortenberg, A. & Paperny, V. (2015). Architecture of Great Expositions 1937-1959: Messages of Peace, Images of War. London: Ashgate.

Featherstone, M. (2020). Prometheus and the Degenerate: Arno Breker, Hans Bellmer and Francis Bacon’s Extreme Realism. In R. Lippens & E. Murray, Representing the Experience of War and Atrocity. Interdisciplinary Explorations in Visual Criminology (pp. 153-177). London: Palgrave Macmillan.

Fernández-Vegue Ollero, D. (2017). El fuego hermenéutico:interpretaciones del mito de Prometeo (Trabajo de fin de Máster). Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia, Madrid.

Fornells Angelats, M. (2006). Los lienzos de José María Sert en la iglesia de San Telmo de Donostia-San Sebastián. San Sebastián: Amigos del Museo San Telmo/Donostia Kultura-San Telmo Museoa.

García Gual, C. (1979). Prometeo: mito y tragedia. Madrid: Hyperión.

Herera de Larrea, I. (1990) Diego Rivera’s Mural at the Rock. Center. México D.F.: Edicupes.

Hesiod. (1914). Theogony. W. Heinemann (Ed.) Hesiod, the Homeric Hymns, and Homerica (pp. 78-153). London: The Macmillan Company.

Hinkelammert, F. (2006). Prometeo, el discernimiento de los dioses y la ética del sujeto Reflexiones sobre un mito fundante de la modernidad. Polis Revista Latinoamericana, 13, 1-27. Retrieved from https://journals.openedition.org/polis/5527

Horkheimer, M. & Adorno, T. W. (1998). Dialéctica de la ilustración. Madrid: Trotta.

Jiménez, M. & Latorre, J. (2020). La crisis constructiva del sueño europeo en Metrópolis, de Fritz Lang. Un estudio contextual comparado de los mitos de Prometeo y Atlas. Fotocinema. Revista científica de Cine y Fotografía, 21, 83-110. https://www.doi.org/10.24310/Fotocinema.2020.vi21.10000

Latorre, J. (2014). Antoni Gaudí: los fundamentos intemporales de un arquitecto actual. In P. Pérez López (Ed.), Personajes de fe que hicieron historia (pp. 122-133). Madrid: Rialp.

Marx, K. (1971). Diferencia de la filosofía de la naturaleza en Demócrito y en Epicuro, Madrid: Ayuso.

Monnier, G. (2012), José Maria Sert (1874-1945) Un peintre décorateur oublié? Sociétés & Représentations 2012/2, 34, 193-196.

Ortoll S. & Ramírez de Arellano, A. B. (2004) Diego Rivera, José María Sert y los Rockefeller: una historia con cuatro epílogos, Journal of Iberian and Latin American Research, 10(1), 1-21. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/13260219.2004.10429978

Overy, R. (2006). Dictadores. Barcelona: Tusquets.

Paquette, C., Joe, R. & Lozano Long, T. (2017), At the Crossroads: Diego Rivera and His Patrons at MoMA, Rockefeller Center, and the Palace of Fine Arts. Series in Latin American and Latino Art and Culture. Austin: University of Texas Press.

Pascual i Rodríguez, V. (1997). Sert, el darrer pintor muralista (“Sert, the Last Muralist Painter” in Catalan). Barcelona: Publicacions de l’Abadia de Montserrat.

Plato (1972). Timaeus and Critias. London: Penguin Classics.

Pliego Quijano, S. (2012). El hombre en la encrucijada: Diego Rivera y su mural en el Centro Rockefeller. Retrieved from https://www.academia.edu/3712218/El_hombre_en_la_encrucijada _el_mural_de_Diego_Rivera_en_el_Centro_Rockefeller

Rand, A. (2005). La rebelión de Atlas. Buenos Aires: Grito sagrado.

Rand, A. (2012). Capitalismo: el ideal desconocido. Buenos Aires: Grito sagrado.

Rivera, D. (1934). Portrait of America. New York: Covici, Friede.

Roussel, Ch. (2006) The Guide to the Art of Rockefeller Center New York: W. W. Norton & Company.

Safranski, R. (2009). Romanticismo. Una odisea del espíritu alemán. México: Tusquets.

Sáez Lacave, S (2012). La Célébrité de Sert. In S. Gállego Cuesta & P. Sáez Lacave, José María Sert. Le Titan à l’œuvre (1874-1945) (pp. 66-73). Paris: Paris Musées.

Suárez-Pajares, J. (1996). Manuel de Falla, 1876-1946: La imagen de un músico. Madrid: Fundación Autor - Sociedad General de Autores y Editores.

Trujillo, H. (2012). Sert, el único pintor que se atrevió a cubrir el mural de Diego Rivera, Huffingtonpost, 11/12/2012. Retrieved from https://www.huffingtonpost.es/hilda-trujillo/jose-maria-sert-diego-rivera_b_1957188.html

Van Hensbergen, G. (2001) Gaudí: A Biography, New York: HarperCollins.

Weber, E. (2002). Atlántida de Manuel de Falla: nuevas soluciones para el teatro musical. Anuari Verdaguer, 11, 629-647. Retrieved from https://www.raco.cat/index.php/AnuariVerdaguer/article/view/67987

Metrics





Search GoogleScholar


Details

Article Details

Section
Special Issue: Visual motifs and representations of power in the public sphere