Arantxa Vizcaíno-Verdú e-mail(Login required) , Patricia De-Casas-Moreno e-mail(Login required) , Simona Tirocchi e-mail(Login required)

Main Article Content


Arantxa Vizcaíno-Verdú e-mail(Login required)
Patricia De-Casas-Moreno e-mail(Login required)
Simona Tirocchi e-mail(Login required)



Social media and prosumers have encouraged participatory creativity in the era of platformization. In this context, successful platforms such as YouTube and TikTok have facilitated users interact with music content in a wide variety of meaningful and evocative videos. In the light of research on the cultural prosumption of Internet content, as well as the global exchange of musical data, which is leading an emerging and innovative digital convergence, this study analyses the intersection between digital music and users through the Music Prosumer Questionnaire (MuPQ). This tool consists of three dimensions and 21 items based on (a) music preferences, (b) use of social media, and (c) music engagement. For this purpose, we collected the response of 698 users from Spain and Italy. The results showed that digital and visual music is essential to users’ life as a means of expression and relationship with other people. In particular, in their role as music curator, are more interested in “music watching” than in blind listening, which is related to mainstream music viewing dynamics. These findings provide new insights for understanding how music evolves according to the relationship between users and social media beyond technological progress.


Social media, music video, platformizaton, user-generated content, musicking, questionnaire, prosumer


Abidin, C. (2021). Mapping Internet celebrity on TikTok: Exploring attention economies and visibility labours. Cultural Science, 12(1), 77-103.

Airoldi, M., Beraldo, D. & Gandini, A. (2015). Follow the algorithm: An exploratory investigation of music on YouTube. Poetic, 57, 1-13.

Airoldi, M. (2015). The techno-social reproduction of taste boundaries on digital platforms: The case of music on YouTube. Poetics.

Álvarez-Cueva, P., Figueras-Maz, M. & Medina-Bravo, P. (2021). Evolución de la heteronormatividad a partir de una categorización de los estereotipos de género. Análisis de los videoclips musicales más populares. Profesional de la Información, 30(5).

Balleys, C., Millerand, F., Thoër, C. & Duque, N. (2020). Searching for oneself on YouTube: Teenage peer socialization and social recognition processes. Social Media + Society, 6(2), 1-11.

Bednarz, J. (2022). Who is a consumer in the digital era? Still a consumer or a prosumer? In M. Bartosik-Purgat & N. Filimn (Eds.), Implications of technology, media and culture on consumer behavior (pp. 24-40). London, UK: Routledge.

Bennett, A. & Rogers, I. (2016). Popular music scenes and cultural memory. London, UK: Palgrave.

Bhandari, A. & Bimo, S. (2020). TikTok and the 'algorithmized self': A new model of online interaction. In The 21st Annual Conference of the Association of Internet Researchers (pp. 1-3). Brisbane, Australia: AoIR.

Boffone, T. (2021). Renegades. Digital dance cultures from Dubsmash to TikTok. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Business of Apps (2022). Most popular Apps. Business of Apps. Retrieved from

Cayari, C. (2011). The YouTube effect: How YouTube has provided new ways to consume, create, and share music. International Journal of Education & the Arts, 12(6), 1-28.

Cayari, C. (2017). Connecting music education and virtual performance practices from YouTube. Music Education Research, 20(3), 360-376.

Cervi, L., Tejedor, S. & Marín-Lladó, C. (2021). TikTok and the new language of political communication. Culture, Language & Representation, 26, 267-287.

Chin, T. & Rickard, N. (2012). The Music USE (MUSE) Questionnaire: An instrument to measure engagement in music. Music Perception: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 29(4), 429-446.

Copra, S., Ranjan, P., Malhota, A., Sahu, A., Dwivedi, S., Baitha, U., Goel, A. & Kumar, A. (2021). Development and validation of a questionnaire to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on lifestyle-related behaviours: Eating habits, activity and sleep behaviour. Public Health Nutrition, 24(6), 1275-1290.

Dalu-Maharso, R. (2021). Audio content curation in digital music streaming applications. Music recommendations in Spotify playlists. Proceedings of the Asia-Pacific research in Social Sciences and Humanities Univeersitas Indonesia Conference (APRISH 2019), 558, 201-207.

De-Kort, Y., Poels, W-A. & Poels, K. (2007). Digital games as social presence technology: Development of the Social Presence in Gaming Questionnaire (SPGQ). In 10th Annual International Workshop on Presence (pp. 1-9). Presence.

Edlom, J. (2022). The engagement imperative: Experiences of communication practitioners' brand work in the music industry. Media and Communication, 10(1), 66-76.

Etikan, I., Alkassim, R. & Abubakar, S. (2015). Comparision of snowball sampling and sequential sampling technique. Biometrics & Biostatistics International Journal, 3(1), 1-2.

Fraser, T., Dale-Crooke, A. & Davidson, J-W. (2020). 'Music has no borders': An exploratory study of audience engagement with YouTube music broadcasts during COVID-19 lockdown, 2020. Frontiers in Psychology, 12, 1-17.

Green, B. (2016). 'I always remember that moment': Peak music experiences as epiphanies. Sociology, 50(2), 333-348.

Green, J. & Burgess, J. (2020). YouTube: Online video and participatory culture. Malden, Cambridge: Polity Press.

Hamilton, C. (2019). Popular music, digital technologies and data analysis: New methods and questions. Convergence, 25(2), 225-240.

Hernández-Serrano, M. J., Renés-Arellano, P., Graham, G. & Greenhill, A. (2017). From prosumer to prodesigner: Participatory news consumption. Comunicar, 50, 77-88.

Jami-Pour, M., Mohammadbagher-Jafari, S., Rashidi-Rad, M. & Taheri, G. (2022). Providing a framework for evaluating the quality of user-generated content in social media. Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies in Communication and Media, 17(17).

Jaramillo-Dent, D., Vizcaíno-Verdú, A., de-Casas-Moreno, P. & Baldallo-González, C. (2020). Instagramming: Temas, tópicos y tendencias. Barcelona: Octaedro.

Kaye, D. B. V. (2022). Please duet this: Collaborative music making in lockdown on TikTok. Networking Knowledge, 15(1), 1-19.

Kennedy, M. (2020). 'If the rise of the TikTok dance and e-girl aesthetic has taught us anything, it's that teenage girls rule the Internet right now': TikTok celebrity, girls and the Coronavirus crisis. European Journal of Cultural Studies, 23(6), 1069-1076.

Kintsche, E., Le-Mével, L. & Berson, I. (2015). Development of the four-dimensional Motives for Listening to Music Questionnaire (MLMQ) and associations with health and social issues among adolescents. Psychology of Music, 44(2), 219-233.

Magaudda, P. (2021). Smartphones, streaming platforms, and the infrastructuring of digital music practices. In A. Hennion & C. Levaux (Eds.), Rethinking music through science and technology studies (pp. 12-15). Milton, UK: Routledge.

Michalovich, A. & Hershkovitz, A. (2020). Assessing YouTube science news' credibility: The impact of web-search on the role of video, source, and user attributes. Public Understanding of Science, 29(4), 376-391.

Naveed, K., Watanabe, C. & Neittaanmäki, P. (2017). Co-evolution between streaming and live music leads a way to the sustainable growth of music industry - Lesson from the US experiences. Technology in Society, 50, 1-19.

Nieborg, D. B. & Poell, T. (2018). The platformization of cultural production: Theorizing the contingent cultural commodity. New Media & Society, 20(11), 4275-4292.

Park, J., Park, J. & Park, J. (2018). The effects of user engagements for user and company generated videos on music sales: Empirical evidence from YouTube. Frontiers in Psychology, 9, 1-10.

Pedrero-Esteban, L. M., Barrios-Rubio, A. & Medina-Ávila, V. (2019). Teenagers, smartphones and digital audio consumption in the age of Spotify. Comunicar, 60, 103-112.

Prey, R., Del-Valle, M. E. & Zwerwer, L. (2020). Platform pop: Disentangling Spotify's intermediary role in the music industry. Information, Communication & Society, 1-19.

Selva-Ruiz, D. & Fénix-Pina, D. (2021). Soundtrack music videos: The use of music videos as a tool for promoting films. Communication & Society, 34(3), 47-60.

Shaheen, M., Pradhan, S. & Ranajee, R. (2019). Sampling in qualitative research. In M. Gupta, M. Shaheen & K. P. Reddy (Eds.), Qualitative techniques for workplace data analysis (pp. 25-51). Hershey: IGI Global.

Shutsko, A. (2020). User-generated short video content in social media. A case study of TikTok. In G. Meiselwitz (Ed.), Social Computing and Social Media. Participation, user experience, consumer experience, and applications of social computing (pp. 108-125). Cham: Springer.

Smith, R. & Secoy, J. (2019). Exploring the music identity development of elementary education majors using ukulele and YouTube. Journal of Music Teacher Education, 29(1), 71-85.

Song, M. K. & Kim, Y. J. (2020). Speaking of your own repertoire: An investigation of music performance during practice. British Journal of Music Education, 37, 260-269.

Statista. (2020). Most popular websites worldwide as of December 2020, by total visits. Statista. Retrieved from

Szymkowiak, A., Kubala, B. & Antoniak, M. (2020). Music sales and artists' popularity on social media. International Journal of Marketing, Communication and New Media, 8(14), 70-96.

Tejedor-Calvo, S., Cervi, L., Robledo-Dioses, K. & Pulido-Rodríguez, C. (2022). Challenges of using TikTok as an educational platform: A multi-thematic network where humour overcomes debate. Aula Abierta, 51(2), 121-128.

Van Dijck, J., Poell, T. & de-Waal, M. (2018). The platform society: Public values in a connective world. Johanneshov: Oxford University Press.

Vanstone, A. D., Wolf, M., Poon, T. & Cuddy, L. L. (2015). Measuring engagement with music: Development of an informant-report questionnaire. Aging & Mental Health, 20(5), 474-484.

Vázquez-Herrero, J., Negreira-Rey, M. C. & López-García, X. (2020). Let's dance the news! How the news media are adapting to the logic of TikTok. Journalism, 1-19.

Vizcaíno-Verdú, A., Aguaded, I. & Contreras-Pulido, P. (2021a). Understanding transmedia music on YouTube through Disney storytelling. Sustainability, 13(7), 3667.

Vizcaíno-Verdú, A., Contreras-Pulido, P. & Guzmán-Franco, M. D. (2021b). YouTube musicians and self-perceived multimedia, hipermedia, intertextual and transmedia competencies. Learning, Media and Technology, 46(4), 515-530.

Vizcaíno-Verdú, A. & Abidin, C. (2022). Music challenge memes on TikTok: Understanding in-group storytelling videos. International Journal of Communication, 16(26), 883-908.

Vizcaíno-Verdú, A. & Aguaded, I. (2022). #ThisIsMeChallenge and music for empowerment of marginalized groups on TikTok. Media and Communication, 10(1), 157-172.

Wang, Y. (2020). Humor and camera view on mobile short-form video apps influence user experience and technology-adoption intent, and example of TikTok (DouYin). Computers in Human Behavior, 110, 1-9.

Zhang, Z. (2020). Infrastructuralization of TikTok: transformation, power relationships, and platformization of video entertainment in China. Media, Culture & Society, 43(2), 1-18.

Zhang, Q. & Negus, K. (2021). Stages, platforms, streams: The economies and industries of live music after digitalization. Popular Music and Society, 44(5), 539-557.

Zulli, D. & Zulli, D. J. (2020). Extending the Internet meme: Conceptualizing technological mimesis and imitation publics on the TikTok platform. New Media & Society, 24(8), 1872-1890.


Search GoogleScholar


Article Details