Celina Navarro e-mail(Login required) , Òscar Coromina e-mail(Login required)

Main Article Content


Celina Navarro e-mail(Login required)
Òscar Coromina e-mail(Login required)


In recent years, digital feminism has been prominent in the international public sphere and the massive release of individual testimonies of violence against women has had an important presence on social media. In Spain, the reaction to the judicial sentence of the La Manada case, which only convicted the five men accused of abuse, rather than rape, provoked a public outrage that was negotiated on social networks and was later displayed in mass demonstrations across the country. The aim of this study is to analyze the reaction that took place on Twitter on the day of the ruling of the sentence (26 April 2018) and how the dominant frames were initiated and stabilized on Twitter. With a sample of almost 500.000 tweets, the posts achieving most retweets per hour and the most salient media objects (including hashtags, visual content and links) have been analyzed based on the framing theory. Media objects have been explored through flowcharts allowing the visualization of the evolution of the dominant messages. The results show a hegemonic conversation on Twitter against the ruling of the court with a high presence of feminist demands. Furthermore, the analysis of the evolution of the main frames shows that the different Twitter affordances allow rapidity in the negotiation of the dominant messages. This paper contributes to the understanding of the articulation of framing from a complex perspective including media objects such as images and URLs that broaden the layers of meaning of the Twitter discourse on collective actions.


feminism, Twitter, framing, cyberfeminism, activism, social networks


Álvarez, P. (2018, March 3). La sentencia de La Manada desata una tormenta política y social. El País. Retrieved from https://elpais.com/politica/2018/05/02/actualidad/1525286725_262083.html

Baer, H. (2016). Redoing feminism: digital activism, body politics, and neoliberalism. Feminist Media Studies, 16(1), 17-34. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/14680777.2015.1093070

Bennet, W. L. & Segerberg, A. (2013). The Logic of Connective Action: Digital Media and the Personalization of Contentious Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Borra, E. & Rieder, B. (2014). Programmed method: Developing a toolset for capturing and analyzing tweets. Aslib Journal of Information Management, 66(3), 262-278. https://www.doi.org/10.1108/ajim-09-2013-0094

Bosch, T. & Mutsvairo, B. (2017). Pictures, protests and politics: Mapping Twitter images during South Africa’s Fees Must Fall campaign. African Journalism Studies, 38(2), 71-89. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/23743670.2017.1368869

Boyd, D., Golder, S. & Lottan, G. (2010). Tweet, Tweet, Retweet: Conversational Aspects of Retweeting on Twitter. In IEEE (Ed.), HICSS-43. Kauai, HI.

Bruns, A. & Burgess, J. (2015). Twitter hashtags from ad hoc to calculated publics. In N. Rambukkana (Ed.), Hashtags Publics: The Power and Politics of Discursive Networks (pp. 13-28). New York: Peter Lang.

Caro Castaño, L. (2015). Construir y comunicar un “nosotras” feminista desde los medios sociales. Una reflexión acerca del “feminismo del hashtag”. Commons: Revista de Comunicación y Ciudadanía Digital, 4(2), 124-154. https://www.doi.org/10.25267/commons.2015.v4.i2.06

Clark, R. (2016). “Hope in a hashtag”: The discursive activism of #WhyIStayed. Feminist Media Studies, 16(5), 788–804. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/14680777.2016.1138235

Coromina, Ò. (2017). Pugna por el relato en los contenciosos políticos. El caso del proceso participativo del 9N de 2014. El profesional de la información, 26(5), 884-893. https://www.doi.org/10.3145/epi.2017.sep.10

Diego, M. & Sevilla Lorenzo, J. (2018, May 4). La comisión del Gobierno que revisará los delitos sexuales del Código Penal está formada por 20 hombres y ninguna mujer. eldiario.es. Retrieved from https://www.eldiario.es/politica/Gobierno-violacion-Codigo-Penal-exclusivamente_0_767823275.html

Eagle, R. (2015). Loitering, lingering, hashtagging: Women reclaiming public space via #BoardtheBus, #StopStreetHarassment, and the #EverydaySexism Project. Feminist Media Studies, 15(2), 350-353. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/14680777.2015.1008748

Entman, R. (1993). Framing: Toward a clarification of a fractured paradigm. Journal of Communication, 43(4), 51-58. https://www.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.1993.tb01304.x

Gill, R. (2007). Postfeminist media culture: Elements of a sensibility. European Journal of Cultural Studies, 10(2), 147–166.

Giraldo-Luque, S., Fernández-García, N. & Pérez-Arce, J. C. (2018). La centralidad temática de la movilización #NiUnaMenos en Twitter. El Profesional de la Información, 27(1), 96–105. https://www.doi.org/10.3145/epi.2018.ene.09

Highfield, T. (2017). Social media and everyday politics. Malden, MA: John Wiley & Sons.

Hogan, A. (2016). #tellPearson: The activist “Public Education” network. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, 39(1), 1–16. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/01596306.2016.1269225

Hussain, M. M. & Howard, P. N. (2013). Democracy’s fourth wave? Digital media and the Arab Spring. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.

Kay LeFebvre, R. & Armstrong, C. (2018). Grievance-based social movement mobilization in the #Ferguson Twitter storm. New Media & Society, 20(1), 9–28. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/1461444816644697

Kim, J. (2017). #iamafeminist as the “Mother Tag”: Feminist identification and activism against misogyny on Twitter in South Korea. Feminist Media Studies, 17(5), 804. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/14680777.2017.1283343

Loza, S. (2014). Hashtag Feminism, #SolidarityIsForWhiteWomen, and the other #FemFuture. Ada - A Journal of Gender New Media & Technology (5).

McRobbie, A. (2004). Post-feminism and popular culture. Feminist Media Studies, 4(3), 255-264. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/1468077042000309937

Mendes, K., Ringrose, J. & Keller, J. (2018). #MeToo and the promise and pitfalls of challenging rape culture through digital feminist activism. European Journal of Women’s Studies, 25(2), 236-246. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/1350506818765318

Meraz, S. & Papacharissi, Z. (2013). Networked Gatekeeping and Networked Framing on #Egypt. The International Journal of Press/Politics, 18(2), 138-166. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/1940161212474472

Papacharissi, Z. & Fatima Oliveira, M. (2012). Affective news and networked publics: The rythms of news storytelling on #Egypt. Journal of Communication, 62(2), 266-282. https://www.doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.2012.01630.x

Peña-López, I., Congosto, M. & Aragón, P. (2013). Spanish Indignados and the evolution of 15M: Towards networked para-institutions. Journal of Spanish Cultural Studies, 15(1-2), 189-216. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/14636204.2014.931678

Philipps, A. (2012) Visual protest material as empirical data. Visual Communication, 11(1), 3-21. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/1470357211424675

Pruchniewska, U. M. (2018). Branding the self as an “authentic feminist”: Negotiating feminist values in post-feminist digital cultural production. Feminist Media Studies, 18(5), 810-824. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/14680777.2017.1355330

Rieder, B. (2016). RankFlow. Computer software. Retrieved from http://labs.polsys.net/tools/rankflow/

Rieder, B., Matamoros-Fernández, A. & Coromina, Ò. (2018). From ranking algorithms to ‘ranking cultures’ Investigating the modulation of visibility in YouTube search results. Convergence, 24(1), 50-68. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/1354856517736982

Rodino-Colocino, M. (2014). #YesAllWomen: Intersectional mobilization against sexual assault is radical (again). Feminist Media Studies, 14(6), 1113–1115. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/14680777.2014.975475

Salime, Z. (2014). New feminism as personal revolutions: Microrebellious bodies. Signs, 40(1), 14-20. https://www.doi.org/10.1086/676962

Summers-Effler, E. (2002). The micro potential for social change: Emotion, consciousness, and social movement formation. Sociological Theory, 20(1), 41-60. https://www.doi.org/10.1111/1467-9558.00150

Thrift, S. C. (2014). #YesAllWomen as feminist meme event. Feminist Media Studies, 14(6), 1090-1092. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/14680777.2014.975421

Tufekci, Z. (2013). “Not This One” social movements, the attention economy, and microcelebrity networked activism. American Behavioral Scientist, 57(7), 848-870. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/0002764213479369

Valera Ordaz, L. (2016). El sesgo mediocéntrico del framing en España: una revisión crítica de la aplicación de la teoría del encuadre en los estudios de comunicación. Zer. Revista de Estudios de Comunicación, 21(41), 13-33. https://www.doi.org/10.1387/zer.17259

Varela, N. (2013). Feminismo para principiantes. Barcelona: B de Bolsillo.

Williams, S. (2015). Digital defense: Black feminists resist violence with hashtag activism. Feminist Media Studies, 15(2), 341-344. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/14680777.2015.1008744

Zafra, R. (2010). Un cuarto propio conectado. (Ciber)espacio y (auto)gestación del yo. Madrid: Fórcola.

Zajc, M. (2013). Social media, prosumption, and dispositives: New mechanisms of the construction of subjectivity. Journal of Consumer Culture, 15(1), 28-47. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/1469540513493201

Webber, W., Moffat, A. & Zobel, J. (2010). A similarity measure for indefinite rankings. ACM Transactions on Information Systems, 28(4), 1-38. https://www.doi.org/10.1145/1852102.1852106

Zimmerman, T. (2017). #Intersectionality: The fourth wave feminist Twitter community. Atlantis, 38(1), 54-70.

Yang, G. (2016). Narrative agency in hashtag activism: The case of #BlackLivesMatter. Media and Communication, 4(4), 13. https://www.doi.org/10.17645/mac.v4i4.692


Search GoogleScholar


Article Details