Victoria Moreno-Gil e-mail(Login required) , María-Ángeles Chaparro-Domínguez e-mail(Login required) , Marta Pérez-Pereiro e-mail(Login required)

Main Article Content


Victoria Moreno-Gil e-mail(Login required)
María-Ángeles Chaparro-Domínguez e-mail(Login required)
Marta Pérez-Pereiro e-mail(Login required)



Disinformation has become a global problem affecting mass media, governments and citizens globally. Besides the loss of trust in the media and its weakening influence, exposure to all manner of messages on social media in recent years has paved the way for disinformation, which has become a considerable challenge for journalism. According to the 2022 Edelman Trust Barometer, Spain is one of the countries most concerned about this phenomenon (Edelman, 2022). However, is this concern shared by Spanish journalist associations? What training initiatives are being carried out for future journalists to counter the spread of disinformation? How should fact-checking be taught in university? This study aims to answer these questions by using a dual methodology. First, a review and analysis were undertaken on the different training initiatives for bachelor’s and university-specific master’s degree students. Then, 15 in-depth interviews were conducted with experts, including fact-checkers, experienced journalists and representatives of sectoral associations, to ascertain their views on fact-checking and disinformation. The main results show that Spanish universities offer few training fact-checking-related initiatives, particularly at bachelor’s degree level, although more and more university-specific degrees and master’s degrees on this topic are becoming available. Furthermore, most interviewees view specialised training for the next generation of journalists as a key factor for fighting disinformation, and they provide guidelines to achieve this.


Disinformation, fake news, fact-checking, journalism, Spain, university, training


Aguaded-Gómez, I. & Pérez-Rodríguez, M. A. (2012). Strategies for media literacy: Audiovisual skills and the citizenship in Andalusia. Journal of New Approaches in Educational Research, 1(1), 22-26.

Aguaded-Gómez, I. & Romero-Rodríguez, L. (2015). Mediamorfosis y desinformación en la infoesfera: alfabetización mediática, digital e informacional ante los cambios de hábitos de consumo informativo. Education in the Knowledge Society, 16(1), 44-57.

Alsius, S. (2010). The Ethical Values of Journalists. Field Research among Media Professionals in Catalonia. Barcelona: Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Generalitat de Catalunya. Departament de la Presidència.

Allcott, H. & Gentzkow, M. (2017). Social media and fake news in the 2016 election. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 31(2), 211-236.

Amazeen, M. A. (2020). Journalistic interventions: The structural factors affecting the global emergence of fact-checking. Journalism, 21(1), 95-111.

Blanquerna Universitat Ramon Llull (2022). Máster en Periodismo de Datos y Fact checking. Retrieved from

Brandtzaeg, P. B., Følstad, A. & Chaparro-Domínguez, M.-Á. (2018). How journalists and social media users perceive online fact-checking and verification services. Journalism Practice, 12(9), 1109-1129.

Buckingham, D. (2005). Educación en medios. Barcelona: Paidós.

Christians, C. G., Glasser, T. L., McQuail, D., Nordenstreng, K. & White, R. A. (2009). Normative theories of the media: Journalism in Democratic Societies. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.

Culver, S. H. & Jacobson, T. (2012). Media Literacy and its use as a method to encourage civic engagement. Comunicar, 39(20), 73-80.

De Montis, M. & Vargas, N. (2022). Brecha de género en el periodismo español: las mujeres solo ocupan el 24 % de los puestos directivos. EFEminista, July 25. Retrieved from

Edelman (2022). Edelman Trust Barometer 2022. Retrieved from

Fernández-García, N. (2017). Fake news: una oportunidad para la alfabetización mediática. Nueva Sociedad, 269, 66-77. Retrieved from

Frau-Meigs, D. (2019). Information Disorders: Risks and Opportunities for Digital Media and Information Literacy? Medijske studije, 10(19), 10⎼28. Retrieved from

García-Marín, D. (2020). Global infodemic: Information disorders, false narratives, and fact checking during the Covid-19 crisis. El Profesional de la Información, 29(4), e290411.

García Ruiz, R., Ramírez García, A. & Rodríguez-Rosell, M. M. (2014). Media literacy education for a new prosumer citizenship. Comunicar, 43(22), 15-23.

Graves, L. (2013). Deciding what’s true: Fact-checking journalism and the new ecology of news. Ph.D. dissertation, Columbia University.

Graves, L. (2016). Boundaries not drawn: Mapping the institutional roots of the global fact checking movement. Journalism Studies, 19(5), 613-631.

Graves, L. (2017). Anatomy of a fact check: Objective practice and the contested epistemology of fact checking. Communication, culture & critique, 10(3), 518-537.

Graves, L. & Cherubini, F. (2016). The rise of fact checking sites in Europe. Oxford: Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism. Retrieved from

Graves, L., Nyhan, B. & Reifler, J. (2016). Understanding innovations in journalistic practice: A field experiment examining motivations for fact-checking. Journal of Communication, 66(1), 102-138.

Gutiérrez-Martín, A. & Austin, K. T. (2012). Educación para los medios, alfabetización mediática y competencia digital. Comunicar, 38(19), 31-39.

Hallin, D. C. & Mancini, P. (2004). Comparing media systems. Three models of media and politics. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Herrero, E. & Herrera-Damas, S. (2021). El fact-checking hispanohablante: competencias, dificultades y propuestas de mejora desde la perspectiva de sus profesionales. El Profesional de la Información, 30(6), e300612.

Herrero-Diz, P., Pérez-Escolar, M. & Varona Aramburu, D. (2022). Competencias de verificación de contenidos: una propuesta para los estudios de Comunicación. Revista de Comunicación, 21(1).

Jenkins, H. (2009). Confronting the challenges of participatory culture: media education for the 21st century. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.

Jones-Jang, S. M., Mortensen, T. & Liu, J. (2021). Does Media Literacy Help Identification of Fake News? Information Literacy Helps, but Other Literacies Don’t. The American Behavioral Scientist, 65(2), 371⎼88.

Kendall, A. & McDougall, J. (2012). Critical Media Literacy after the Media. Comunicar, 38(19), 21-29.

Kothari, A. & Hickerson, A. (2020). Challenges for journalism education in the era of automation. Media Practice and Education, 21(3), 212-228.

Kuś, M. & Barczyszyn-Madziarz, P. (2020). Fact-checking initiatives as promoters of media and information literacy: The case of Poland. Central European Journal of Communication, 13(2), 249-265.

Lewandowsky, S., Ecker, U. K. H. & Cook, J. (2017). Beyond misinformation: Understanding and coping with the ‘post-truth’ era”. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition, 6(4), 353-369.

López-Romero, L. & Aguaded, M. C. (2012). Teaching Media Literacy in Colleges of Education and Communication. Comunicar, 44(22), 187-195.

Magallón-Rosa, R. (2019). Unfacking news. Cómo combatir la desinformación. Madrid: Pirámide.

Maldita (2022). Máster en Investigación Periodística, Nuevas Narrativas, Datos, Fact-Checking y Transparencia. Retrieved from

Martínez-Fresneda, H. (2010). La trascendencia de la comunicación. Una visión pedagógica de los medios. Madrid: Fragua.

McDougall, J. (2019). Media literacy versus fake news: critical thinking, resilience and civic engagement. Medijske Studije, 10(19), 29-45.

Montoya, N. (2005). La comunicación audiovisual en la educación. Madrid: Laberinto.

Moreno-Gil, V., Ramon-Vegas, X. & Mauri-Ríos, M. (2022). Bringing journalism back to its roots: examining fact-checking practices, methods, and challenges in the Mediterranean context. El Profesional de la Información, 31(2), e310215.

Nicey, J. (2020). Les pratiques de fact-checking journalistique participatif, entre contraintes et intérêts. Interfaces Numériques, 9(2), e4283.

Nielsen, R. K. (2016). The many crises of Western journalism: A comparative analysis of economic crises, professional crises, and crises of confidence. In J. C. Alexander, E. B. Breese & M. Luengo (Eds.), The crisis of journalism reconsidered: Democratic culture, professional codes, digital future (pp. 77-97). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Nieminen, S. & Rapeli, L. (2019). Fighting misperceptions and doubting journalists’ objectivity: A review of fact-checking literature. Political Studies Review, 17(3), 296-309.

Nygren, T., Frau-Meigs, D., Corbu, N. & Santoveña-Casal, S. (2022). Teachers’ views on disinformation and media literacy supported by a tool designed for professional fact-checkers: perspectives from France, Romania, Spain and Sweden. S.N. Social Sciences, 2(4), 40.

Parratt-Fernández, S., Chaparro-Domínguez, M.-Á. & Gilbert, G. S. (2022). Discursive Strategies for Climate Change Reporting: A Case Study of The Mercury News. Environmental Communication.

Reuters Institute (2022). Digital News Report 2022. Retrieved from

Soengas Pérez, X., López-Cepeda, A. M. & Sixto-García, J. (2019). The media diet, news consumption habits and disinformation of Spanish university students. Revista Latina de Comunicación Social, 74, 1056-1070.

Suárez Villegas, J. C., Rodríguez Martínez, R., Mauri Ríos, M. & López-Meri, A. (2017). Accountability y culturas periodísticas en España. Impacto y propuesta de buenas prácticas en los medios de comunicación españoles (MediaACES). Revista Latina de Comunicación Social, 72, 321-330.

Tanner, A. H., Friedman, D. B. & Zheng, Y. (2015). Influences on the Construction of Health News: The Reporting Practices of Local Television News Health Journalists. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media, 59(2), 359-376.

Ufarte-Ruiz, M. J., Peralta-García, L. & Murcia-Verdú, F. J. (2018). Fact checking: A new challenge in journalism. El Profesional de la Información, 27(4), 733-741.

Universidad San Pablo CEU (2022). Máster en Verificación Digital, Fact-Checking y Periodismo de Datos (Newtral). Retrieved from

Universitat Ramon Llull (2022). Máster en Periodismo de Datos y Fact Checking. Retrieved from

Usher, N. (2017, April 5). Does anyone care about journalism research (No, really). Retrieved from

Usher, N. (2018). Breaking news production processes in U.S. metropolitan newspapers: Immediacy and journalistic authority. Journalism, 19(1), 21-36.

Walzer Moscovik, A. (2011). Visiones, saberes y placeres sobre cultura visual y educación. Madrid: Universitas.

Wardle, C. & Derakhshan, H. (2017). Information disorder. Toward an interdisciplinary framework for research and policy making. Council of Europe report DGI. Retrieved from

Zuberogoitia, A., Díaz-Campo, J. & Pérez-Pereiro, M. (2020). Perceived Effectiveness of Established and Innovative Media Accountability Instruments in Spain. Comparative Analysis in Andalusia, Euskadi, Catalonia, Galicia, Madrid and Valencia. Estudios sobre el Mensaje Periodístico, 26(3), 1255-1264.


Search GoogleScholar


Article Details

Author Biography

Marta Pérez-Pereiro, Univ. de Santiago de Compostela