Main Article Content
gatekeepers, disseminate their own messages, and mobilize protests, this study explores how activists in the United States and Latin America view activism in relation to mainstream and alternative media, particularly online media. Results from a quantitative and qualitative survey show activists distrust mainstream, corporate media and most frequently get their news online. Also, despite the digital divide and concerns about corporate control of the Internet, activists were positive about the role of the Internet as an alternative public space for staying informed and for waging activism.
AGOSTA, Diana E., “Constructing civil society, supporting local development: A case study of community radio in postwar EI Salvador”, Democratic Communiqué, 21(1), 2007, pp. 4-26.
ALDANA-AMABILE, Susana, “The media in Paraguay: From the coverage of political democracy to the obsession with violence”, in LUGO-OCANDO, Jairo (ed.), The media in Latin America, Open University Press, New York, pp. 167-178.
ARMSTRONG, David, A trumpet to arms: Alternative media in America, South End Press, Boston, 1981.
ATKINSON, Joshua, Alternative media and politics of resistance: A communication perspective, Peter Lang Publishing, New York, 2010.
ATTON, Chris, Alternative media, Sage Publications, London, 2002.
ATTON, Chris, An alternative Internet: Radical media, politics and creativity, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, 2004.
Atton, Chris, “Alternative and citizen journalism”, in Wahl-Jorgensen, Karin and Hanitzsch, Thomas (eds.), The handbook of journalism studies, Routledge, New York, 2009, p. 272.
ATWOOD, Rita, 1986, “Assessing critical mass communication scholarship in the Americas: The relationship of theory and practice”, in ATWOOD, Rita and McANANY, Emile G. (eds.), Communication & Latin American society: Trends in critical research, 1960-1985, University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, WI, 1986, pp. 11-27.
BENNETT, W. Lance, “Communicating global activism: Strengths and vulnerabilities of networked politics”, in VAN DE DONK, Wim, LOADER, Brian D., et al., Cyberprotest: New media, citizens and social movements, Routledge, London, 2004, pp. 123-146.
BENKLER, Yochai, The wealth of networks: How social production transforms markets and freedom, Yale University Press, New Haven, 2006.
BENSON, Rodney, “Commercialism and critique: California's alternative weeklies”, in COULDRY, Nick and CURRAN, James (eds.), Contesting media power: Alternative media in a networked world, Rowman & Littlefield, Lanham, MD, 2003, pp. 111-127.
BLUMLER, Jay George, and GUREVITCH, Michael, The crisis of political communication, Routledge, London, 1995.
BONFADELLI, Heinz, “The Internet and knowledge gaps: A theoretical and empirical investigation”, European Journal of Communication, 17(1), 2002, pp. 65-84.
BRODOCK, Katherine, et al., “Digital activism survey report 2009”, 2009, retrieved from http://www.digiactive.org/wpcontent/uploads/Research4_SurveyReport2009.pdf.
CAÑIZÁLEZ, Andrés and LUGO-OCANDO, Jairo, “Beyond national media systems: A medium for Latin America and the struggle for integration”, in LUGO-OCANDO, Jairo (ed.), The media in Latin America, Open University Press, New York, 2008, pp. 209-225.
CASTELLS, Manuel, The Internet galaxy: Reflections on the Internet, business and society, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2001.
CASTELLS, Manuel, Communication Power, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2009.
CHAFFEE, Steven H. and MCLEOD, J.M., “Consumer decisions and information use”, in WARD, Scott and ROBERTSON, Thomas (eds.), Consumer behavior: Theoretical sources, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 1973, pp. 385-415.
CHAN, Joseph Man, LEE, Chin-Chuan, “The journalistic paradigm on civil protests: A case study of Hong Kong” in ARNO, Andrew and DISSANAYAKE, Wimal (eds.), The News Media in National and International Conflict, Westview, Boulder, CO, 1984, pp. 183–202.
CHANG, Tsan-Kuo, BERG, Pat Pat, FUNG, Anthony Ying-Him, et al., “Comparing nations in mass communication research, 1970-97: A critical assessment of how we know what we know”, International Communication Gazette, 63(5), 2001, pp. 415-434.
COULDRY, Nick, “Part 1: Researching media internationalization: Comparative media research as if we really mean it”, Global Media and Communication, 3(3), 2007, pp. 247-271.
COULDRY, Nick and CURRAN, James (eds.), Contesting media power: Alternative media in a networked world, Rowman & Littlefield, Lanham, 2003.
DAUTRICH, Kenneth and HARTLEY, Thomas H., How the news media fail American voters: Causes, consequences, and remedies, Columbia University, New York, 1999.
DOWNING, John, Radical media: Rebellious communication and social movements, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, 2001.
DOWNING, John, “The Independent Media Center movement and the anarchist socialist tradition”, in COULDRY, Nick and CURRAN, James (eds.), Contesting media power: Alternative media in a networked world, Rowman & Littlefield, Lanham, 2003, pp. 243-257.
DU PLOOY, Trudie, “Sampling in communication research”, in DU PLOOY, Gertruida M. (ed.), Introduction to communication: Communication research, The University of South Africa Rustica Press, Ndabeni, 1995, pp. 48-66.
EARL, Jennifer, KIMPORT, Katrina, et al., “Changing the world one webpage at a time: Conceptualizing and explaining Internet activism”, Mobilization: An International Journal, 15(4), pp. 425-446.
FLANAGIN, Andrew J., and METZGER, Miriam J. Metzger, “From Encyclopaedia Britannica to Wikipedia: Generational differences in the perceived credibility of online encyclopedia information”, Information, Communication & Society, 14(3), 2011, pp. 355-374.
FOX, Elizabeth, and WAISBORD, Silvio R., Latin politics, global media, University of Texas Press, Austin, 2002.
FRASER, Nancy, “Rethinking the public sphere: A contribution to the critique of actually existing democracy”, Social Text 25/26, 1990, pp. 56-80.
FURSICH, Elfriede, “In defense of textual analysis”, Journalism Studies, 10(2), 2008, pp. 238-252.
FUCHS, Christian, “The role of income inequality in a multivariate cross-national analysis of the digital divide”, Social Science Computer Review, 27, 2009, pp. 41-58.
GILLETT, James, “The challenges of institutionalization for AIDS media activism”, Media, Culture & Society, 25(5), 2003, pp. 607-624.
GITLIN, Todd, The Whole World is Watching: Mass Media in the Making & Unmaking of the New Left, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1980.
GOLDSTEIN, Roxana, “Contributing to socially relevant public policies on e-governance: The case of the genesis of the communes in Buenos Aires City”, in GASCÓ-HERNÁNDEZ, Mila (ed.), Latin America online: Cases, successes and pitfalls, IRM Press, Hershey, PA, 2007, pp. 277-318.
GRANELLO, D. H. and WHEATON, J. E., “Online data collection: Strategies for research”, Journal of Counseling & Development, 82, 2004, pp. 387-393.
GONZÁLEZ-RODRÍGUEZ, Gustavo, “The media in Chile: The restoration of democracy and the subsequent concentration of media ownership”, in LUGO-OCANDO, Jairo (ed.), The media in Latin America, Open University Press, New York, 2008, pp. 61-77.
HALL, Stuart, “Introduction”, in SMITH, Anthony Charles, et al. (eds.), Paper voices: The popular press and social change, 1935-1965, Chatto & Windus, London, 1975, pp. 1-24.
HARA, Noriko, “Internet use for political mobilization: Voices of participants”, First Monday 13(7), 2008.
HARCUP, Tony, “‘The Unspoken – Said.’ The journalism of alternative media”, Journalism, 4(3), 2003, pp. 356-376.
HARLOW, Summer, “Social media and social movements: Facebook and an online Guatemalan justice movement that moved offline”, New Media & Society, 14, 2012, pp. 225-243.
Harlow, Summer, “FCC rulings clear way for first new urban community radio stations in U.S. in decades,” The Knight Center for Journalism in the Americas, 2012, retrieved from https://knightcenter.utexas.edu/blog/00-9406-fcc-rulings-clear-way-first-new-urban-communityradio-stations-us-decades.
HARLOW, Summer and HARP, Dustin, “Collective Action on the Web: A cross-cultural study of social networking sites and online and offline activism in the United States and Latin America”, Information, Communication & Society, 15, 2012, pp. 196-216.
HARLOW, Summer and JOHNSON, Thomas J., “Overthrowing the protest paradigm? How The New York Times, Global Voices and Twitter covered the Egyptian Revolution. International Journal of Communication”, 5, 2011, pp. 1.359-1.374.
HERMAN, Edward, and CHOMSKY, Noam, “A propaganda model”, in DURHAM, Meenakshi Gigi and KELLNER, Douglas (eds.), Media and cultural studies: Key works, Blackwell Publishing, Malden, 1988, pp. 257-294.
JENKINS, Henry, “What happened before YouTube”, in BURGESS, Jean and GREEN, Joshua (eds.), YouTube, Polity Press, Malden, MA, 2009, pp. 109-125.
JONES, David A., “Shooting the messenger: Explaining public discontent with the news media”, Politics & Policy 33(2), 2005, pp. 242-262.
JURIS, Jeffrey S, “The new digital media and activist networking within anti-corporate globalization movements”, Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 597(1), 2005, pp. 189-208.
KAPLOWITZ, M. D., HADLOCK, T. D. and LEVINE, R.. “A comparison of Web and mail survey response rates”, Public Opinion Quaterly, 68, 2004, pp. 94-101.
KESSLER, Lauren, The dissident press: Alternative journalism in American history, Sage Publications, Beverly Hills, CA., 1984.
LE GRIGNOU, Brigitte, and PATOU, Charles, “ATTAC(k)ing expertise: Does the internet really democratize knowledge?”, in VAN DE DONK, WIM, LOADER, Brian D., et al. (eds.), Cyberprotest: New media, citizens and social movements, Routledge, London, 2004, pp. 164-179.
LIEVROUW, Leah A., Alternative and activist new media, Polity Press, Cambridge, 2011.
LIM, Merlyna, “The Internet, social networks, and reform in Indonesia”, in COULDRY, Nick and CURRAN, James (eds.), Contesting media power: Alternative media in a networked world, Rowman & Littlefield, Lanham, MD, 2003, pp. 273-288.
LINDLOF, Thomas R., and TAYLOR, Bryan C., Qualitative communication research methods, 3rd ed, Sage, Thousand Oaks, CA, 2011.
MARTÍN-BARBERO, Jesús, “The mediated genres and cultural identity of the people”, Culture and Communication Media, Pontificia University of Salamanca, Salamanca, Spain, 2000, p. 125.
MARTÍN BARBERO, Jesús, “Communicational and technological changes in the public sphere”, in GUMUCIO-DAGRON, Alfonso and TUFTE, Thomas (eds.), Communication for social change anthology: Historical and contemporary readings, Communication for Social Change Consortium, South Orange, NJ, 2006, pp. 997-1002.
MCANANY, Emile G., “Seminal ideas in Latin American critical communication research: An agenda for the North”, in ATWOOD, Rita and MCANANY, Emile G. (eds.), Communication and Latin American society: Trends in critical research, 1960-1985, University of Wisconsin Press, Madison, WI, 1986, pp. 28-47.
MCLEOD, Douglas M. and HERTOG, James K., “Social control, social change and the mass media's role in the regulation of protest groups”, DEMERS, David, and VISWANATH, K. (eds.), Mass media, social control and social change: A macrosocial perspective, Iowa State University Press, Ames, 1999, pp. 305-330.
MELLADO, Claudia, MOREIRA, Sonia Virginia, et al., “Comparing journalism cultures in Latin America: The case of Chile, Brazil and Mexico”, The International Communication Gazette, 74(1), 2012, pp. 60-77.
NESS, Imanuel (ed.), Encyclopedia of American Social Movements, M.E. Sharpe, Armonk, NY, 2004.
NICODEMUS, Diane M., “Mobilizing information: Local news and the formation of a viable political community”, Political Communication, 21(2), 2004, pp. 161-176.
NIP, Joyce Y.M, “The Queer Sisters and its electronic bulletin board: A study of the Internet for social movement mobilization”, in VAN DE DONK, Wim, LOADER, Brian D., et al. (eds.), Cyberprotest: New media, citizens and social movements, Routledge, London, 2004, pp. 233-258.
PADOVANI, Cinzia, “Citizens' communication and the 2009 G8 summit in L'Aquila, Italy”, International Journal of Communication 4, 2010, pp. 416-439.
PERETTI, Jonah, “Culture jamming, memes, social networks, and the emerging media ecology: The ‘Nike sweatshop email’ as object-to-think-with”, Peretti Media Online, 2001.
POSTMES, Tom and BRUNSTING, Suzanne, “Collective action in the age of the Internet: Mass communication and online mobilization”, Social Science Computer Review, 20(3), 2002, pp. 290- 301.
POTTER, W. James, An analysis of thinking and research about qualitative methods, Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ, 1996.
RAINIE, Lee, and HORRIGAN, John, “Election 2006 online,” 2007, retrieved from http://www.pewinternet.org RAUCH, Jennifer, “Activists as interpretive communities: Rituals of consumption and interaction in an alternative media audience,” Media, Culture & Society, 29(6), 2007, pp. 994-1013.
RIBEIRO, Gustavo Lins, “Cybercultural politics: Political activism at a distance in a transnational world”, in ALVAREZ, Sonia E., DAGNINO, Evelina, et al. (eds.), Cultures of politics, politics of cultures: Re-visioning Latin American social movements, Westview Press, Boulder, CO, pp. 325- 352.
ROBINSON, Sue, "Someone's gotta be in control here", Journalism Practice, 1, 2007, pp. 305-321.
ROCKWELL, Rick and JANUS, Noreene, “The triumph of the media elite in postwar Central America”, in FOX, Elizabeth and WAISBORD, Silvio R. (eds.), Latin politics, global media, University of Texas Press, Austin, TX, 2002, pp. 47-68.
ROCKWELL, Rick and JANUS, Noreene, Media power in Central America, University of Illinois Press, Urbana, 2003.
RODRIGUEZ, Clemencia, Fissures in the mediascape, Hampton Press, Cresskill, NJ, 2011.
RUCHT, Dieter, “The quadruple 'A': Media strategies of protest movements since the 1960s”, in VAN DE DONK, Wim, LOADER, Brian D., et al., Cyberprotest: New media, citizens and social movements, Routledge, London, 2004, pp. 29-56.
SANDOVAL-GARCÍA, Carlos, “The media in Costa Rica: Many media, scarce communication”, in LUGO-OCANDO, Jairo, The media in Latin America, Open University Press, New York, pp. 100-115.
SAX, L. J., GILMARTIN, S. K. and BRYANT, A. N., “Assessing response rates and nonresponse bias in Web and paper surveys”, Research in Higher Education, 44, 2003, pp. 409-432.
SINGER, Jane B., “Journalists and news bloggers: Complements, contradictions, and challenges”, in BRUNS, Axel and JACOBS, Joanne (eds.), Uses of blogs, Peter Lang, New York, 2006, pp. 23- 32.
TORRICO VILLANUEVA, Erick, “The media in Bolivia: The market-driven economy, ‘shock therapy’ and the democracy that ended”, in LUGO-OCANDO, Jairo (ed.), The media in Latin America, Open University Press, New York, pp. 29-45.
VEGH, Sandor, “Classifying forms of online activism: The case of cyberprotests against the World Bank”, in McCAUGHEY, Martha and AYERS, Michael D. (eds.), Cyberactivism: Online activism in theory and practice, Routledge, New York, pp. 71-95.
WAISBORD, Silvio, Watchdog journalism in South America: News, accountability, and democracy, Columbia University Press, New York, 2000.
WOJCIESZAK, Magdalena, “Carrying online participation offline: Mobilization by radical online groups and politically dissimilar offline ties”, Journal of Communication, 59, 2009, pp. 564-586.
WOLIVER, Laura R., From outrage to action: The politics of grass-roots dissent, University of Illinois Press, Urbana, 1993.
By submitting the article for evaluation and subsequent publication in Communication & Society, the AUTHOR exclusively assigns the rights of public communication, reproduction, distribution and sale for commercial exploitation to the University of Navarra through its Publications Service, for the maximum legal term in force -the entire life of the author and seventy years after his death or declaration of death-, in any country, and in any of the current and future edition modalities, both in print and electronic versions.
In the event that the article is not accepted for publication , this transfer of rights lapses with the communication of the refusal to the AUTHOR.
The AUTHOR affirms that the article is unpublished, that it has not been sent simultaneously to another publication medium and that the rights have not been transferred exclusively previously. He is responsible to the University of Navarra through its Publications Service for the authorship and originality of his work, as well as for all pecuniary charges that may arise for the University of Navarra through its Publications Service, in favor of third parties due to actions, claims or conflicts arising from the breach of obligations by the AUTHOR.