Ángel Vizoso e-mail(Login required) , Jorge Vázquez-Herrero e-mail(Login required)

Main Article Content

Authors

Ángel Vizoso e-mail(Login required)
Jorge Vázquez-Herrero e-mail(Login required)

Abstract

472
Fact-checking has become one of the most relevant activities of recent years, as a result of the increase in the flow of fake news and of the ease to spread news through platforms such as social media. The goal of the research is to assess the task of fact-checking developed by initiatives that use Spanish as a vehicle for comparing inaccurate and false information. We carried out a case study of 19 international projects that use Spanish as the main language to materialise their fact-checking actions and the analysis of contents published aims at understanding where these companies develop their activities, how are them internally organized and which methods they use to translate the data obtained to the audience. Results show that most of fact-checking projects in Spanish –launched most of them in the period 2014-2016– remain active. In South America, these organizations have more weight. Most of them have a journalistic nature, although there is a large number of civic and independent projects. Among strategies for verification, text is the preferred formula, although some innovative methods to present the degree of accuracy of assessed contents have been found.

Keywords

Fact-checking, misinformation, misrepresentation, fake-news, hoaxes.

References

Allcott, H. & Gentzkow, M. (2017). Social Media and Fake News in the 2016 Election. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 31(2), 211–236. https://www.doi.org/10.1257/jep.31.2.211.

Alonso-Muñoz, L. & Casero-Ripollés, A. (2017). Transparencia y monitorización en el entorno digital. Hacia una tipología de las plataformas impulsadas por la ciudadanía. Revista Latina de Comunicación Social, 72, 1351–1366. https://www.doi.org/10.4185/RLCS2017-1223.

Amazeen, M. A., Thorson, E., Muddiman, A. & Graves, L. (2015). A Comparison of Correction Formats: The Effectiveness and Effects of Rating Scale versus Contextual Corrections on Misinformation. Retrieved from http://www.americanpressinstitute.org/wpcontent/uploads/2015/04/The-Effectiveness-of-Rating-Scales.pdf.

Amorós, M. (2018). Fake News. La verdad de las noticias falsas. Barcelona: Plataforma Editorial.

Bennett, W. L. & Livingston, S. (2018). The disinformation order: Disruptive communication and the decline of democratic institutions. European Journal of Communication, 33(2), 122–139. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/0267323118760317.

Bergström, A. & Jervelycke Belfrage, M. (2018). News in Social Media. Digital Journalism, 6(5), 583–598. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/21670811.2018.1423625.

Berinsky, A. J. (2015). Rumors and Health Care Reform: Experiments in Political Misinformation. British Journal of Political Science, 47(2), 241–262. https:// www.doi.org/10.1017/S0007123415000186.

Bloch, M. (1999). Historia e historiadores. Madrid: Akal.

Boczkowski, P. (2016). Las noticias falsas y el futuro del periodismo. Retrieved from https://www.infobae.com/opinion/2016/12/13/las-noticias-falsas-y-el-futuro-delperiodismo/

Brandtzaeg, P. B., Følstad, A. & Chaparro Domínguez, M. Á. (2017). How Journalists and Social Media Users Perceive Online Fact-Checking and Verification Services. Journalism Practice, agosto 201, 1–21. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/17512786.2017.1363657.

Brandtzaeg, P. B., Lüders, M., Spangenberg, J., Rath-Wiggins, L. & Følstad, A. (2016). Emerging Journalistic Verification Practices Concerning Social Media. Journalism Practice, 10(3), 323–342. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/17512786.2015.1020331.

Burkhardt, J. M. (2017). Chapter 1. History of Fake News. Library Technology Reports, 53(8), 5– 9. Cambridge Dictionary. (2018). Significado de fake news. Retrieved from https:// dictionary.cambridge.org/es/diccionario/ingles/fake-news.

Cherubini, F. & Graves, L. (2016). The Rise of Fact-Checking Sites in Europe. Oxford: Reuters Institute for the Study of Journalism. Retrieved from http://reutersinstitute.politics. ox.ac.uk/our-research/rise-fact-checking-sites-europe Choi, S. (2015). The Two-Step Flow of Communication in Twitter-Based Public Forums. Social Science Computer Review, 33(6), 696–711. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/ 0894439314556599.

Chomsky, N. & Ramonet, I. (1995). Cómo nos venden la moto. Barcelona: Icaria.

Collins Dictionary. (2018). Fake news definition and meaning. Retrieved from https:// www.collinsdictionary.com/dictionary/english/fake-news.

Currie Sivek, S. & Bloyd-Peshkin, S. (2018). Where Do Facts Matter? Journalism Practice, 12(4), 400–421. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/17512786.2017.1307694.

Duke Reporter’s Lab. (2018). Fact-Checking. Retrieved from https://reporterslab.org/factchecking/ Elizabeth, J. (2014). Who are you calling a fact checker? - American Press Institute. Retrieved from https://www.americanpressinstitute.org/fact-checking-project/fact-checkerdefinition/

Eurobarometer. (2018). Flash Eurobarometer 464: Fake News and Disinformation Online. Eurobarometer. Retrieved from http://data.europa.eu/euodp/en/data/dataset/ S2183_464_ENG.

Feenstra, R. A. & Casero-Ripollés, A. (2014). Democracy in the Digital Communication Environment: A Typology Proposal of Political Monitoring Processes. International Journal of Communication, 8, 2448–2468. Retrieved from https://ijoc.org/index.php/ ijoc/article/view/2815/1225.

Fole, X. (2012). Los hechos son sagrados. El fact-checker y la importancia del periodismo. Retrieved from http://www.fronterad.com/?q=hechos-son-sagrados-fact-checker-yimportancia-periodismo.

Funke, D. (2018). Report: There are 149 fact-checking projects in 53 countries. That’s a new high. Retrieved from https://www.poynter.org/news/report-there-are-149-factchecking-projects-53-countries-thats-new-high.

Gaitán, J. A. & Piñuel, J. L. (1998). Técnicas de investigación en Comunicación Social. Madrid: Síntesis.

Geham, F. (2017). Le fact-checking : une réponse à la crise de l’information et de la démocratie. Paris: Fondapol. Retrieved from http://www.fondapol.org/etude/farid-gueham-le-factchecking-une-reponse-a-la-crise-de-linformation-et-de-la-democratie/.

Graves, L. (2016a). Anatomy of a Fact Check: Objective Practice and the Contested Epistemology of Fact Checking. Communication, Culture & Critique, 10(3), 518–537. https://www.doi.org/10.1111/cccr.12163.

Graves, L. (2016b). Deciding What’s True. New York: Columbia University Press.

Graves, L. (2018a). Boundaries Not Drawn. Journalism Studies, 19(5), 613–631. https:// www.doi.org/10.1080/1461670X.2016.1196602.

Graves, L. (2018b). Understanding the Promise and Limits of Automated Fact-Checking. Retrieved from https://reutersinstitute.politics.ox.ac.uk/our-research/understandingpromise-and-limits-automated-fact-checking.

Haigh, M., Haigh, T. & Kozak, N. I. (2017). Stopping Fake News. Journalism Studies, 19(14), 2062–2087. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/1461670X.2017.1316681.

Hermida, A. (2012). Tweets and Truth. Journalism Practice, 6(5–6), 659–668. https://www. doi.org/10.1080/17512786.2012.667269.

Kirby, E. J. (2016, December 6). La ciudad europea que hizo una fortuna a base de crear noticias falsas sobre las elecciones de Estados Unidos. BBC News Mundo. Retrieved from https://www.bbc.com/mundo/noticias-38222222.

Kosslyn, J. & Yu, C. (2017). Fact Check now available in Google Search and News around the world. Google Blog. Retrieved from https://blog.google/products/search/fact-checknow-available-google-search-and-news-around-world/

Lowrey, W. (2017). The Emergence and Development of News Fact-checking Sites. Journalism Studies, 18(3), 376–394. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/1461670X.2015.1052537.

Marchi, R. (2012). With Facebook, Blogs, and Fake News, Teens Reject Journalistic “Objectivity.” Journal of Communication Inquiry, 36(3), 246–262. https://www.doi.org/ 10.1177/0196859912458700.

Martin, N. (2017). Journalism, the pressures of verification and notions of post-truth in civil society. Cosmopolitan Civil Societies: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 9(2), 41–56. https:// www.doi.org/10.5130/ccs.v9i2.5476.

Nyhan, B. & Reifler, J. (2015). Displacing Misinformation about Events: An Experimental Test of Causal Corrections. Journal of Experimental Political Science, 2(1), 81–93. https:// www.doi.org/10.1017/XPS.2014.22.

Palau-Sampio, D. (2018). Fact-checking y vigilancia del poder: La verificación del discurso público en los nuevos medios de América Latina. Communication & Society, 31(3), 347– 365. https://www.doi.org/doi: 10.15581/003.31.3.347-365.

Polage, D. C. (2012). Making up History: False Memories of Fake News Stories. Europe’s Journal of Psychology, 8(2), 245–250. https://www.doi.org/10.5964/ejop.v8i2.456

Ramírez-Montoya, M. S. & García-Peñalvo, F.-J. (2018). Co-creación e innovación abierta: Revisión sistemática de literatura / Co-creation and open innovation: Systematic literature review. Comunicar, 26(54), 9–18. https://www.doi.org/10.3916/C54-2018-01.

Rubin, V. L., Chen, Y. & Conroy, N. J. (2015). Deception detection for news: Three types of fakes. Proceedings of the Association for Information Science and Technology, 52(1), 1–4. https://www.doi.org/10.1002/pra2.2015.145052010083.

Stencel, M. (2015). Implications and lessons for journalists practicing fact-checking. Retrieved from https://www.americanpressinstitute.org/publications/reports/surveyresearch/lessons-journalists-practicing-fact-checking/.

Stencel, M. & Griffin, R. (2018). Fact-checking triples over four years. Retrieved from https://reporterslab.org/fact-checking-triples-over-four-years/.

Storyful. (2017). Our expertise allows us to contextualize social data and conversations and verify user-generated content to find the truth in the vast landscape of social noise. Retrieved from https://storyful.com/about/.

Tandoc, E. C., Lim, Z. W. & Ling, R. (2018). Defining “Fake News”. Digital Journalism, 6(2), 137–153. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/21670811.2017.1360143.

Tiwana, A. (2015). Platform Desertion by App Developers. Journal of Management Information Systems, 32(4), 40–77. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/07421222.2015.1138365.

Tucho, F. (n.d.). La manipulación de la información en los conflictos armados: tácticas y estrategias. Retrieved from http://www2.uned.es/ntedu/espanol/novmarcos.htm.

Vosoughi, S., Roy, D. & Aral, S. (2018). The spread of true and false news online. Science (New York, N.Y.), 359(6380), 1146–1151. https://www.doi.org/10.1126/science.aap9559.

Waisbord, S. (2018). Truth is What Happens to News. Journalism Studies, 19(13), 1866–1878. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/1461670X.2018.1492881.

Zubiaga, A., Liakata, M., Procter, R., Hoi, G. W. S. & Tolmie, P. (2016). Analysing How People Orient to and Spread Rumours in Social Media by Looking at Conversational Threads. PLOS ONE, 11(3), e0150989. https://www.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0150989.

Metrics





Search GoogleScholar


Details

Article Details

Section
Special Issue: Credibility and Trust in Post-Truth Times and the Network Society