Ana-M. Pérez-Guerrero e-mail(Login required) , Andrés Forero-Serna e-mail(Login required)

Main Article Content

Authors

Ana-M. Pérez-Guerrero e-mail(Login required)
Andrés Forero-Serna e-mail(Login required)

Abstract

661
The purpose of this study is to explore the narrative strategies used to communicate the horror genre in the scripts of Laika studios and to investigate both the extent to which they contribute to imbuing the genre with a unique character in aesthetic and dramatic terms within mainstream animation cinema and the role they fulfil within the framework of their thematic approaches. To this end, a textual analysis of the studio’s productions was conducted for Coraline (Henry Selick, 2009), ParaNorman (Chris Butler & Sam Fell, 2012), The Boxtrolls (Graham Annable & Anthony Stacchi, 2014) and Kubo and the Two Strings (Travis Knight, 2016). The analysis was based on the knowledge categories proposed by Jule Selbo’s (2010) study on the creation of a mental space for the genre. The categories are divided into schematic, specific, and relevant knowledge. Finally, this study demonstrates how the tactics of the horror genre used in these films have enabled a different view of common themes in family-oriented Hollywood animation by communicating a stark image of the family and growing up. Although this image is not transgressive, it is certainly innovative by virtue of its thematic content, in which warnings against romanticising reality abound.

Keywords

Laika, children?s horror, animation, family movies, narrative strategies, fairy tales

References

Altman, R. (2000). Film Genre. London: BFI Publishing.

Antunes, F. (2014). Children and Horror after PG-13: The Case of the Gate. Networking Knowledge, 6(4), 18-28. https://www.doi.org/10.31165/nk.2014.64.313.

Antunes, F. (2015). Children Beware! Children’s Horror, PG-13 and the Emergent Millennial Pre-Teen. Doctoral thesis. Norwich: University of West Anglia. Retrieved from https://ueaeprints.uea.ac.uk/59477/1/2016AntunesAFGPhD.pdf.

Bentley, C. M. (2002). That’s Just the Way We Like it: The Children’s Horror Film in the 1980’s. Master’s Thesis. Kentucky: University of Kentucky. Retrieved from https:// uknowledge.uky.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1280&context=gradschool_theses.

Bendazzi, G. (2016). Animation: A World History: Volume II: The Birth of a Style - The Three Markets. Boca Ratón: Focal Press.

Brignull, I. & Pava, A. (2014). The Boxtrolls, original Screenplay. Retrieved from http://focusguilds2014.com/workspace/media/boxtrolls-screenplay.pdf.

Carey, G., Wynne, T. & Alexander, K. (2002). An Environmental Scan of Children’s Interactive Media from 2000 to 2002. Report for the Markle Foundation by Just Kid. Retrieved from https://bit.ly/2DT4svN.

Campbell, L. (2014). A Quest of Her Own: Essays on the Female Hero in Modern Fantasy. North Carolina: McFarland.

Carroll, L. (2010). Through the looking glass. London: Penguin.

Carroll, L. (2011). Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland. Buffalo: Broadview Editions.

Carroll, N. (1990). Philosophy of Terror or Paradoxes of the Heart. London: Routledge.

Carroll, N. (2002). “Why Horror?”, in M. Janckovich, Horror, The film reader (pp. 33-45). New York: Routledge.

Cohen, D. (2009). Coraline, Script: Celebrating the Writer, 15(2), 13-41, Baldwin Forum Inc.

Dorr, A. (1986). Television and Children: A Special Medium for a Special Audience. Thousand Oaks: Sage.

Estes, L. & Kelp S. (2016). Undead in Suburbia. In C. Miller & B. van Riper (Eds.), The Laughing Dead: The Horror-Comedy Film from Bride of Frankenstein to Zombieland (pp. 227-242). London: Rowman & Littlefield.

Evans, V. & Green, M. (2006). Cognitive Linguistics: An Introduction. Edinburgh: University of Edinburgh Press.

Fauconnier, G. (1994). Mental Spaces. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Freud, S. (1999). Obras completas (Complete Works). Buenos Aires: Amorrortu editores.

Fowkes, K. (2010). The Fantasy Films. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell.

Grant, B. K. (2010). Screams on Screens: Paradigms of Horror. Thinking after Dark: Welcome to the World of Horror Video Games, 4(6), 2-17. Retrieved from http://journals.sfu.ca/ loading/index.php/loading/article/view/85.

Hawley, E. (2015). Re-imagining Horror in Children’s Animated Film, M/C Journal: A Journal of Media and Culture, 18(6), NA. Retrieved from http://journal.mediaculture.org.au/index.php/mcjournal/article/view/1033 Hodgson Burnett, F. (1993). The Secret Garden. Hertfordshire: Wordsworth.

Howarth, M. (2014). Under the bed, creeping: Psychoanalyzing the Gothic in Children’s Literature. Jefferson: McFarland & Cia.

Kristeva, J. (1982). Powers of Horror, An essay of Abjection. New York: Columbia University Press.

Lester, C. (2016). The Children’s Horror Film: Characterizing an “Impossible” Subgenre. The Velvet Light Trap, 78, 22-37. https://www.doi.org/10.7560/VLT7803.

Lester, C, (2016b). The Children’s Horror Film: Beneficial fear and subversive pleasure in an (im)possible Hollywood subgenre. Doctoral thesis. Coventry: University of Warwick. Retrieved from http://wrap.warwick.ac.uk/90706.

Lema, A. (2015). Uruguayan Neo-fear, [sic], 13, dic. Uruguay, 15-22.

Lovecraft, H. P. (2002). El horror sobrenatural en la literatura y otros escritos (Supernatural horror in literature and other writing). Buenos Aires: Alianza.

Magistrale, T. (2005). Abject Terror: Surveying the Modern and Postmodern Horror Film. New York: Peter Lang.

Maslow, A. (1943). A Theory of Human Motivation. Psychological Review, 50, 370-396. https:// www.doi.org/10.1037/h0054346.

Miller, A. (2008). The Crucible. New York: Bloom’s Literary Criticism.

Myers, L. (2012). Whose fear is it anyway?: Moral panics and “stranger danger” in Henry Selick’ Coraline. The Lion and the Unicorn, 36(3), 245-257. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.

Nicolajeva, M. (2002). Rhetoric of the Character in Children’s Literature. Maryland: Scarecrow Press.

Pallant, C. & Price, S. (2015). Storyboarding: A Critical History. London: Palgrave.

Priebe, K. (2011). The Advanced Art of Stop-Motion Animation. Boston: CENGAGE.

Pérez-Guerrero, A. (2013). La aportación de los personajes femeninos al universo de Hayao Miyazaki (The contribution of female characters to the universe of Hayao Miyazaki). Con A de animación, 3, 108-121. Valencia: Polytechnic University of Valencia. https:// www.doi.org/10.4995/caa.2013.1428.

Pérez-Guerrero, A. (2013b). Pixar, las claves del éxito (Pixar, the keys to success). Madrid: Encuentro.

Rowling, J. K. (2015). Harry Potter: The Complete Collection. London: Pottermore Limited.

Sánchez-Escalonilla, A. (2007). Estrategias del guion cinematográfico (Film script strategies). Barcelona: Ariel.

Sánchez-Escalonilla, A. (2009). Fantasía de aventuras (Fantasy of adventures). Comunicación y Sociedad, (23)2, 109-137. Pamplona: Navarra University.

Selbo, J. (2010). The Constructive use of Film Genre for the Screenwriter: Mental Space of Film Genre-First Exploration. Journal of Screenwriting, 1(2), 273-289. https://www.doi.org/10.1386/josc.1.2.273/1.

Selbo, J. (2012). The Constructive Use of Film Genre for the Screenwriter: The Relevant Knowledge Component of the Mental Space of Film Genre. Journal Screenwriting, 3(1), 45-59. https://www. doi.org/10.1386/josc.3.1.45_1.

Selbo, J. (2014). Film Genre for Screenwriter. London: Routledge.

Short, S. (2015). Fairy Tale and film: Old Tales with a New Spine. London: Palgrave.

Smith, G. (1996). Writing Horror Fiction. London: A. C. Black.

Tamborini, R. & Weaver, J. B. (1996). “Frightening entertainment: A historical perspective of fictional horror”. In J. B. Weaver & R. Tamborini (Eds.), Horror films: Current research on audience preferences and reactions (pp. 11-15). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

Troutman, M. E. (2015). (Re)Animating the Horror Genre: Explorations in Children’s Animated Horror Films. Theses and Dissertations. Fayetteville: University of Arkansas. Retrieved from http://scholarworks.uark.edu/etd/1090.

Watercutter, A. (2015). How the Tiny Studio Behind Coraline Became a Powerhouse. Wired. Retrieved from https://bit.ly/2UGjKJD.

Wood, R. (2003). Hollywood from Vietnam to Reagan… And Beyond. New York: Columbia University Press.

Metrics





Search GoogleScholar


Details

Article Details

Section
Articles