Wei Zhang e-mail(Login required) , José-Manuel Pérez-Tornero e-mail(Login required)

Main Article Content

Authors

Wei Zhang e-mail(Login required)
José-Manuel Pérez-Tornero e-mail(Login required)

Abstract

264

Digital media platforms are used to make social contacts, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. Journalism also adopts mobile and social platforms into news production and distribution. The usage of digital media platforms in journalistic practices has shown some interlinkage with political participation. Against these backdrops, there is a need for a theoretical framework to analyze the interlinkage and the relevant influence on social activities. This article uses a conceptual approach and theorizes platformization to explicate the rationale behind the interaction between digital platforms, mobile journalism, and political participation. Platformization in this study inspects media as mediated and dynamic platform that values interactivity and data. We also argue that the thesis of platformization derives from mediatization theory, and consists of platform logic and platform architecture. Platform logic is represented by platform functionality, platform automation, mobile mediality, and platform-based sociality. Platformization is structured by the platform architecture in the communication activities. Platform architecture has two senses. Firstly, it has the sense of internal structure, i.e., the engineering structure of software and hardware. Secondly, it contains the sense of external structure, i.e., the platform’s structural position in the platform ecosystem.

Keywords

platformization, mobile journalism, political participation, platform logic, platform architecture, digital platform

References

Agoulmine, N. (2011). Autonomic Network Management Principles: From concepts to applications. Elsevier.

Ahva, L. (2016). Practice Theory for Journalism Studies: Operationalizing the Concept of Practice for the Study of Participation. Journalism Studies, 1-19. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/1461670X.2016.1139464

Aljazeera Media Training & Development Centre. “Mobile Journalism”. Retrieved from http://institute.aljazeera.net/mritems/Documents/2017/1/24/e60d6cf73db74eb7ab55b0f24a8836a8_100.pdf

An, Z. & Mendiola-Smith, L. (2018). Mapping communication infrastructure theory onto Twitter: Network integration and neighborhood storytelling. International Journal of Communication, 12, 4292-4312. Retrieved from https://ijoc.org/index.php/ijoc/article/view/8831/2484

Anderson, B. (1991). Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso.

Bachmann, I. & Zúñiga, H. G. (2013). News Platform Preference as a Predictor of Political and Civic Participation. Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, 19(4), 496-512. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/1354856513493699

Baldwin, C. Y. & Woodard, C. J. (2008). The Architecture of Platforms: A Unified View. Retrieved from http://www.hbs.edu/faculty/Publication%20Files/09-034_149607b7-2b95-4316-b4b6-1df66dd34e83.pdf (accessed 01 June 2017).

Bennett, W. L., Segerberg, A. (2013). The Logic of Connective Action: Digital Media and the Personalization of Contentious Politics. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Berger, P. L. & Luckmann, T. (1966). The social construction of reality: A treatise in the sociology of knowledge. New York: Anchor Books.

Bergman, M., Kirtiklis, K., Siebers, J. (2019). Models of Communication: Theoretical and Philosophical Approaches. New York: Routledge.

Blaagaard, B. B. (2013). Shifting Boundaries: Objectivity, Citizen Journalism and Tomorrow’s Journalists. Journalism, 14(8), 1076-1090. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/1464884912469081

Blumer, Herbert. 1969. Symbolic interactionism: Perspective and method. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Boutang, Y. M. (2011). Cognitive capitalism. E. Emery (Trans.). Cambridge: Polity Press.

Buhl, F., Günther, E., & Quandt, T. (2018). Observing the Dynamics of the Online News Ecosystem: News diffusion processes among German news sites. Journalism Studies, 19(1), 79-104. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/1461670X.2016.1168711

Burum I. (2016). Democratizing Journalism through Mobile Media: The Mojo Revolution. New York: Routledge.

Burum, I. Quinn, S. (2016). Mojo: The Mobile Journalism Handbook. Burlington: Focal Press.

Capobianco, J. W. (2019). Automate Your Network: Introducing the Modern Approach to Enterprise Network Management. Independently published.

Chen, W. (2018). Abandoned not: media sociology as a networked transfield. Information Communication and Society, 21(5), 647-660. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2018.1428658

Chen, Z., Duan, L., Wang, S, & Lou, Y. (2019). Toward knowledge as a service over networks: A deep learning model communication paradigm. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, 37(6). https://www.doi.org/10.1109/JSAC.2019.2904360

Ch’ng, E. (2015). Local Interactions and the Emergence and Maintenance of a Twitter Small-World Network. Social Networking, 4(2), p.33-40. https://www.doi.org/10.4236/sn.2015.42004

Chorley, M. J., & Mottershead, G. (2016). Are You Talking to Me?: An analysis of journalism conversation on social media. Journalism Practice, 10(7), 856-867. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/17512786.2016.1166978

Cook, D. (2012). The DeMarco Factor: Transforming Public Will into Political Power, by Pertschuk, M. Journal of Community Practice, 20(4), 492-494. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/10705422.2012.731643

Cormode, G. & Krishnamurthy, B. (2008). Key differences between Web 1.0 and Web 2.0. First Monday, 13(6-2), June 2008. Retrieved from https://firstmonday.org/article/view/2125/1972

Coté, M. (2014). Data Motility: The Materiality of Big Social Data. Cultural Studies Review, 20(1). https://www.doi.org/10.5130/csr.v20i1.3832

Couldry, N. (2015). The Myth of “Us”: Digital Networks, Political Change and the Production of Collectivity. Information, Communication & Society, 18(6), 608-626. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2014.979216

Couldry, N. & Hepp, A. (2017). The mediated construction of reality. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Craig, R. T. (1999). Communication Theory as a Field. Communication Theory, 9(2), 119-161. https://www.doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-2885.1999.tb00166.x

Cusumano, M. (2010). Technology Strategy and Management: The Evolution of Platform Thinking. Communications of the ACM, 53(1), 32-34. https://www.doi.org/10.1145/1629175.1629189

Cusumano, M. (2011). Technology Strategy and Management: Platform Wars Come to Social Media. Communications of the ACM, 54(4), 31-33. https://www.doi.org/10.1145/1924421.1924433

Diakopoulos, N. (2019). Automating the News: How Algorithms are Rewriting the Media. Harvard University Press.

Driessens, O., Bolin, G., Hepp, A. & Hjarvard, S. (2017). Dynamics of Mediatization. Springer International Publishing AG.

Eichhorn, K. (2019). The end of forgetting: Growing up with social media. Harvard: Harvard University Press.

Ekman, J. & Amna, E. (2012). Political Participation and Civic Engagement: Towards a New Typology. Human Affairs, 22(3), 283-300. https://www.doi.org/10.2478/s13374-012-0024-1

Enli, G. S. & Skogerbo, E. (2013). Personalized Campaigns in Party-centred Politics: Twitter and Facebook as arenas for political communication. Information, Communication & Society, 16(5), 757-774. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2013.782330

Flynn, J. (2004). Communicative power in Habermas’s theory of democracy. European Journal of Political Theory, 3(4), 433-454. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/1474885104045914

Gillespie, T. (2010). The Politics of “Platforms”. New Media & Society, 12(3), 347-364. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/1461444809342738

Gitlin, T. (1978). Media Sociology: The Dominant Paradigm. Theory and Society, 6(2), 205-253. Retrieved from https://www.jstor.org/stable/657009

Grenfell, M. (2008). Pierre Bourdieu: Key Concepts. In The Lancet. Acumen Publishing Limited Stocksfield. https://www.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(02)27054-3

Habermas, J. (1989). The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere: An Inquiry into a Category of Bourgeois Society. T. Burger (Trans.). Cambridge: Polity Press.

Halupka, M. (2016). The Rise of Information Activism: How to Bridge Dualisms and Reconceptualise Political Participation. Information, Communication & Society, 19(10), 1487-1503. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2015.1119872

Happer, C., Hoskins, A. & Merrin, W. (2019). Trump’s media war. Palgrave Macmillan, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

Heatherly, K. A., Lu, Y. & Lee, J. K. (2016). Filtering out the Other Side? Cross-cutting and Like-minded Discussions on Social Networking Sites. New Media & Society, 1-19. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/1461444816634677

Heinrich, A. (2012). Foreign reporting in the sphere of network journalism. Journalism Practice, 6(5-6). https://www.doi.org/10.1080/17512786.2012.667280

Helmond, A. (2015). The Platformization of the Web: Making Web Data Platform Ready. Social Media + Society, July-December 2015, 1-11. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/2056305115603080

Hepp, A. (2019). Deep Mediatization. New York: Routledge.

Hepp, A., Breiter, A. & Hasebrink, U. (2018). Communicative Figurations. In Communicative Figurations. Springer International Publishing AG. https://www.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-65584-0

Hepp, A., Elsler, M., Lingenberg, S. & Mollen, A. et al. (2016). The communicative construction of Europe: Cultures of political discourse, public sphere and the Euro crisis. Palgrave Macmillan.

Hjarvard, S. (2013). The Mediatization of Culture and Society. New York: Routledge.

Hoelck, K. & Ballon, P. (2015). Competitive Dynamics in the ICT Sector: Strategic Decisions in Platform Ecosystems. Digiworld Economic Journal, 99, 3rd Q., 51-70. Retrieved from http://www.idate.org/en/Digiworld-store/No-99-The-economics-of-platform-markets-Competition-and-regulation_1031.html

Holmes, D. (2005). Communication theory: Media, technology, society. London: Sage. https://www.doi.org/10.4135/9781446220733

Humphreys, L. (2012). Connecting, Coordinating, Cataloguing: Communicative Practices on Mobile Social Networks. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media. 56(4), 494-510. https://doi.org/10.1080/08838151.2012.732144

Jansen, S. (2013). How quality attributes of software platform architectures influence software ecosystems. Proceedings of the 2013 International Workshop on Ecosystem Architectures, 6-10. New York: ACM. https://www.doi.org/10.1145/2501585.2501587

Jensen, K. B., Helles, R. (2017). Speaking into the System: Social Media and Many-to-one Communication. European Journal of Communication, 32(1), 16-25. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/0267323116682805

Johnston, L. (2016). Social News = Journalism Evolution? How the integration of UGC into newswork helps and hinders the role of the journalist. Digital Journalism, 4(7), 899-909. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/21670811.2016.1168709

Karatzogianni, A., & Matthews, J. (2020). Platform Ideologies: Ideological Production in Digital Intermediation Platforms and Structural Effectivity in the “Sharing Economy”. Television and New Media, 21(1), 95-114. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/1527476418808029

Kavanagh, J. & Rich, M. (2018). Truth Decay: An Initial Exploration of the Diminishing Role of Facts and Analysis in American Public Life. Santa Monica, Calif: RAND Corporation.

Koopman, C. (2019). How We Became Our Data: A Genealogy of the Informational Person. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Kuhn, T. S. (2012). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions: 50th Anniversary Edition. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

Lang, A. (2013). Discipline in Crisis? The Shifting Paradigm of Mass Communication Research. Communication Theory, 23(1), 10-24. https://www.doi.org/10.1111/comt.12000

Langley, P. & Leyshon, A. (2016). Platform Capitalism: The Intermediation and Capitalization of Digital Economic Circulation. Finance and Society, 2(1). https://www.doi.org/10.2218/finsoc.v3i1.1936

Lee, S. H. (2015). News Engagement Versus News Consumption: Does Online News Use Promote Civic Engagement? Electronic News, 9(2), 75-90. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/1931243115581415

Legal Information Institute (cornell.edu). Definition: interactive computer service from 47 USC § 230(f)(2). Retrieved from https://www.law.cornell.edu/definitions/uscode.php?width=840&height=800&iframe=true&def_id=47-USC-1900800046-1237841278&term_occur=999&term_src=title:47:chapter:%205:subchapter:II:part:I:section:230

Lenzner, B. (2014). The Emergence of Occupy Wall Street and Digital Video Practices: Tim Pool, Live Streaming and Experimentations in Citizen Journalism. Studies in Documentary Film, 8(3), 251-266. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/17503280.2014.961634

Li, Q. (2020). Immersive Communication: The Communication Paradigm of the Third Media Age (China Perspectives). New York: Routledge.

Lilleker, D. G. & Koc-Michalska, K. (2017). What Drives Political Participation? Motivations and Mobilization in a Digital Age. Political Communication, 34(1), 21-43. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/10584609.2016.1225235

Livingstone, S. & Lunt, P. (2014). Mediatization: An emerging paradigm for media and communication research? In Mediatization of Communication. Handbooks of Communication Science, 21. https://www.doi.org/10.1515/9783110272215.703

Lunt, P. & Livingstone, S. (2016). Is ‘mediatization’ the new paradigm for our field? A commentary on Deacon and Stanyer (2014, 2015) and Hepp, Hjarvard and Lundby (2015). Media, Culture and Society, 38(3), 462-470. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/0163443716631288

Mabweazara, H. M. (2011). Between the Newsroom and the Pub: The Mobile Phone in the Dynamics of Everyday Mainstream Journalism Practice in Zimbabwe. Journalism, 12(6), 692-707. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/1464884911405468

Maireder, A., Weeks, B. E., Zúñiga, H. G. & Schlögl, S. (2017). Big Data and Political Social Networks: Introducing Audience Diversity and Communication Connector Bridging Measures in Social Network Theory. Social Science Computer Review, 35(1), 126-141. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/0894439315617262

Martin, F. & Dwyer, T. (2019). Sharing news online: Commendary cultures and social media news ecologies. Palgrave Macmillan.

Marx, K. (2007). Economic and philosophic manuscripts of 1844. M. Milligan (Ed. and Trans.). New York: Dover Publications.

Mazzoleni, G. & Schulz, W. (1999). “Mediatization” of Politics: A Challenge for Democracy? Political Communication, 16(3), 247-261, https://www.doi.org/10.1080/105846099198613

McKelvey, F. & Piebiak, J. (2016). Porting the Political Campaign: The NationBuilder Platform and the Global Flows of Political Technology. New Media & Society, 1-18. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/1461444816675439

McQuail, D. & Windahl, S. (2013). Communication Models. New York: Routledge.

Molyneux, L. (2017). Multiplatform News and Consumption and its Connections to Civic Engagement. Journalism, 1-19. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/1464884917730216

Morris, J. W. & Murray, S. (2018). Appified: Culture in the age of Apps. Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

Mutsvairo, B. (2016). Recapturing Citizen Journalism: Processes and Patterns. Participatory Politics and Citizen Journalism in a Networked Africa, 1-15. https://www.doi.org/10.1057/9781137554505_1

Nekmat, E., Gower, K. K., Gonzenbach, W. J. & Flanagin, A. J. (2015). Source Effects in the Micro-mobilization of Collective Action via Social Media. Information, Communication & Society, 18(9), 1076-1091. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2015.1018301

Neubauer, A., Freudenberger, J. & Kuhn, V. (2007). Coding theory: Algorithms, Architectures, and Applications. Chichester: Wiley & Sons.

Nieborg, D. B. & Helmond, A. (2019). The political economy of Facebook’s platformization in the mobile ecosystem: Facebook Messenger as a platform instance. Media, Culture & Society, 41(2), 196-218. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/0163443718818384

Nieborg, D. B. & Poell, T. (2018). The platformization of cultural production: Theorizing the contingent cultural commodity. New media & society, 20(11). https://www.doi.org/10.1177/1461444818769694

Papacharissi, Z. A. (2010). A Private Sphere: Democracy in a Digital Age. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Papadopoulos, K. A. (2014). Citizen Camera-witnessing: Embodied Political Dissent in the Age of “Mediated Mass Self-communication”. New Media & Society, 16(5), 753-769. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/1461444813489863

Papakyriakopoulos, O., Serrano, J. C. M. & Hegelich, S. (2020). Political communication on social media: A tale of hyperactive users and bias in recommender systems. Online Social Networks and Media, 15. https://www.doi.org/10.1016/j.osnem.2019.100058

Papsdorf, C. (2015). How the Internet Automates Communication. Information, Communication & Society, 18(9), 991-1005. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2015.1008539

Park, C. S. (2013). Does Twitter Motivate Involvement in Politics? Tweeting, Opinion Leadership, and Political Engagement. Computers in Human Behavior, 29, 1641-1648. https://www.doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2013.01.044

Pérez Tornero, J. M. (2020). La gran mediatización I. El tsunami que expropia nuestras vidas: Del confinamiento digital a la sociedad de la distancia. Barcelona: UOC.

Pérez Tornero, J. M. & Varis, T. (2010). Media Literacy and New Humanism. UNESCO Institute for Information Technologies in Education. Moscow, Russian Federation.

Petty, R. E. & Cacioppo, J. T. (1981). Communication and persuasion: Classic and contemporary approaches. Dubuque, IA: W. C. Brown.

Pew Research Center. (2017). Social Media Fact Sheet. Retrieved from http://www.pewinternet.org/fact-sheet/social-media/ (accessed 18 July 2017).

Picone, I., Courtois, C. & Paulussen, S. (2015). When News is Everywhere. Journalism Practice, 9(1), 35-49. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/17512786.2014.928464

Picone, I., Wolf, R. D. & Robijt, S. (2016). Who Shares What with Whom and Why. Digital Journalism, 4(7), 921-932. https://www.doi.org/10.4324/9780429462030-12

Politis, I., Lykourgiotis, A., Tselios, C. & Orfanoudakis, T. (2018). On measuring the efficiency of next generation emergency communications: The EMYNOS paradigm. 2018 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC). https://www.doi.org/10.1109/ICC.2018.8422741

Poster, M. (1995). The second media age. Cambridge: Polity Press and Blackwell Publishers.

Potter, W. J. (2012). Media Effects. London: Sage.

Ritzer, G. & Jurgenson, N. (2010). Production, Consumption, Prosumption: The Nature of Capitalism in the Age of the digital ‘prosumer’. Journal of Consumer Culture, 10(1), 13-36. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/1469540509354673

Rosengren, K. E. (1974). Uses and gratifications: A paradigm outlined. In J. G. Blumler & E. Katz (Eds.), The uses of mass communications: Current perspectives of gratifications research (pp. 269-286). Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Rubin, A. M., Rubin, R. B. (1985). Interface of personal and mediated communication: A research agenda. Critical Studies in Mass Communication, 2(1), 36-53. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/15295038509360060

Sabatovych, I. (2019). Do social media create revolutions? Using Twitter sentiment analysis for predicting the Maidan Revolution in Ukraine. Global Media and Communication. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/1742766519872780

Schmidt, J.-H. (2014). Twitter and the Rise of Personal Publics. In K. Weller, A. Bruns, J. Burgess, M. Mahrt & C. Puschmann (Eds.), Twitter and Society (pp. 3-14). New York: Peter Lang.

Schroeder, R. (2016). Rethinking Digital Media and Political Change. Convergence: The International Journal of Research into New Media Technologies, 1-16. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/1354856516660666

Schulz, W. (2004). Reconstructing mediatization as an analytical concept. European Journal of Communication, 19(1), 87-101. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/0267323104040696

Schwarz, J. A. (2017). Platform Logic: An Interdisciplinary Approach to the Platform-Based Economy. Policy and Internet. https://www.doi.org/10.1002/poi3.159

Seiler, S. J. & Kidwell, J. (2016). Defining the Mobile-digital Situation within Perpetual Telecopresence: An Exploratory Study of the Impact of Mobile Phones on the Lifeworld. Sociological Spectrum, 36(4), 208-235. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/02732173.2015.1137254

Sheller, M. (2015). News Now: Interface, Ambience, Flow, and the Disruptive Spatio-temporalities of Mobile News Media. Journalism Studies, 16(1), 12-26. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/1461670X.2014.890324

Sheller, M. (2016). Mobile Mediality: Location, Dislocation, Augmentation. In S. Kesselring, G. Vogl & S. Witzgall (Eds.), New Mobilities Regimes in Art and Social Sciences. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate.

Srnicek, N. (2017a). The Challenges of Platform Capitalism: Understanding the Logic of a New Business Model. Juncture, 23(4), 254-257. https://www.doi.org/10.1111/newe.12023

Srnicek, N. (2017b). Platform Capitalism. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Stromback, J. & Esser, F. (2014). Making sense of the mediatization of politics. Journalism Studies, 15(3). https://www.doi.org/10.1080/1461670X.2014.897412

Tenenboim, O. & Kligler-Vilenchik, N. (2020). The Meso News-Space: Engaging with the News between the Public and Private Domains. Digital Journalism. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/21670811.2020.1745657

Theocharis, Y., Lowe, W., Deth, J. W. & García-Albacete, G. (2015). Using Twitter to Mobilize Protest Action: Online Mobilization Patterns and Action Repertoires in the Occupy Wall Street, Indignados, and Aganaktismenoi Movements. Information, Communication & Society, 18(2), 202-220. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2014.948035

Thimm, C., Anastasiadis, M. & Einspänner-Pflock, J. (2018). Media logic(s) revisited. Springer International Publishing AG.

Törnberg, P. (2018). Echo chambers and viral misinformation: Modeling fake news as complex contagion. PloS ONE, 13(9). https://www.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0203958

Tsekeris, C. & Katerelos, I. (2012). Web 2.0, Complex Networks and Social Dynamics. Contemporary Social Science, 7(3), 233-246. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/21582041.2012.721896

Vaccari, C. (2017). Online Mobilization in Comparative Perspective: Digital Appeals and Political Engagement in Germany, Italy, and the United Kingdom. Political Communication, 34(1), 69-88. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/10584609.2016.1201558

Van Dijck, J. (2013). The Culture of Connectivity: a Critical History of Social Media. New York: Oxford University Press.

Van Dijck, J., Poell, T. & de Waal, M. (2018). The platform society: Public values in a connected world. Oxford: Oxford University Press

Vissers, S., Stolle, D. (2014). Spill-Over Effects Between Facebook and On/Offline Political Participation? Evidence from a Two-Wave Panel Study. Journal of Information Technology & Politics, 11(3), 259-275. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/19331681.2014.888383

Vorderer, P., Krömer, N. & Schneider, F. M. (2016). Permanently online – Permanently connected: Explorations into university students’ use of social media and mobile smart devices. Computers in Human Behavior, 63, 694-703. https://www.doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2016.05.085

Weaver, I. S., Williams, H., Cioroianu, I., Jasney, L., Coan, T. & Banducci, S. (2019). Communities of online news exposure during the UK General Election 2015. Online Social Networks and Media, 10(11). https://www.doi.org/10.1016/j.osnem.2019.05.001

Wells, C. & Thorson, K. (2017). Combining Big Data and Survey Techniques to Model Effects of Political Content Flows in Facebook. Social Science Computer Review, 35(1), 33-52. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/0894439315609528

Wenzel, A. D., Ford, S. & Nechushtai, E. (2020). Report for America, Report about Communities: Local News Capacity and Community Trust. Journalism Studies, 21(3), 287-305. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/1461670X.2019.1641428

Westlund. O. (2013). Mobile News: A Review and Model of Journalism in an Age of Mobile Media. Digital Journalism, 1(1), 6-26. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/21670811.2012.740273

Woolley, S. C. & Howard, P. N. (2019). Computational propaganda: Political parties, politicians, and political manipulation on social media. Oxford University Press. https://www.doi.org/10.1093/oso/9780190931407.001.0001

Xenos, M., Vromen, A. & Loader, B. D. (2014). The Great Equalizer? Patterns of Social Media Use and Youth Political Engagement in Three Advanced Democracies. Information, Communication & Society, 17(2), 151-167. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/1369118X.2013.871318

Zúñiga, H. G., Copeland, L. & Bimber, B. (2014). Political consumerism: Civic Engagement and the Social Media Connection. New Media & Society, 16(3), 488-506. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/1461444813487960

Metrics





Search GoogleScholar


Details

Article Details

Section
Articles