Deepali Mallya e-mail(Login required) , Rini Susanti e-mail(Login required)

Main Article Content

Authors

Deepali Mallya e-mail(Login required)
Rini Susanti e-mail(Login required)

Abstract

289

Digitization of the communication medium has transformed the mute, marginalized ‘audience’ into a heterogeneous and credible content ‘producer.’ Drawing on this dynamics and operation of the digital media, it has urged the need to re-theorize ‘marginalization’ and ‘race.’ Hence, this paper critiques the digital-media tool, blogs, using a rhetoric-textual analysis method and critical discourse analysis method for the fictional text, Americanah. These methods employ the psychoanalytical-Althusserian critique of Adichie’s fictional narrative, Americanah. In the psychoanalytical sense, blog-writing can qualify as a mechanism of ‘sublimation’ in the post-modern world. In the Althusserian sense, blogs become persuasive mechanisms for a subject’s interpellation into non-dominant ideology. Among the plethora of marginalized global communities, African-Americans are enormously embracing the virtual communication trends for socio-political motives. This paper theorizes the correlations between race-related blogging, psychoanalytic sublimation, and the socio-political repudiation of power structure by employing the literary text as material evidence. Accordingly, the literary study has concluded that digital-mediums (i.e., in this case, political blogs) can depose the power vested in the ideological-state-apparatuses and impose a high potential for expression of unrestrained, credible, and democratic voice of the marginalized. It also validates that blogs/blogging influences and moulds national/political/racial discourses by lending a liberated voice and context-independent perspective to the racially oppressed.

Keywords

African-Americans, digital media, Dominant ideology, marginalization, race-related blogging, sublimation

References

Adams, P. (Ed.) (2003). Art: Sublimation or symptom. London: Karnac.

Adichie, C. N. (2013). Americanah. London: Fourth Estate.

Allen, M. (Ed.). (2017). The SAGE encyclopedia of communication research methods. California: Sage Publications. https://www.doi.org/10.4135/9781483381411

Althusser, L. P. (1971). Lenin and philosophy and other essays (B. Brewster, Trans.). New York, NY: Monthly Review Press.

Andrews, P. (2003). Is blogging journalism? Weblogs and journalism. Nieman Reports: Journalism and Black America: Then and Now, 57(3), 63–64. Retrieved from https://niemanreports.org/articles/is-blogging-journalism/

Angry Black Bitch. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://angryblackbitch.blogspot.com/ [12 March 2021].

Antaki, C. (1994). Explaining and arguing: The social organization of accounts. London: Sage.

Baldwin, J. A. (1984). African self-consciousness and the mental health of African-Americans. Journal of Black Studies, 15(2), 177-194. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/2784007

Benkler, Y. (2006). The wealth of networks: How social production transforms markets and freedom. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.

Bennett, W. L. (2008). Civic life online: Learning how digital media can engage youth. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Boyd, D. (2013). “White flight in networked publics? How race and class shaped American teen engagement with MySpace and Facebook.” In M. L. Anderson & P. H. Collins (Eds.), Race, class and gender: An anthology (pp. 355–368). Belmont: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Brown, T. N. (2003). Critical race theory speaks to the sociology of mental health: Mental health problems produced by racial stratification. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 44(3), 292–301. https://www.doi.org/10.2307/1519780

Buchanan, L., Bui, Q. & Patel, J. K. (2020). Black Lives Matter may be the largest movement in U.S. history. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2020/07/03/us/george-floyd-protests-crowd-size.html

Castells, M. (2008). The new public sphere: Global civil society, communication networks and global governance. The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 616(1), 78-93. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/0002716207311877

Castoriadis, C. (1995). Logic, imagination, reflection. In A. Elliott & S. Frosh (Eds.), Psychoanalysis in context: Paths between theory and modern culture (pp. 15-35). London, UK: Routledge.

Dean, J. (2010). Blog theory: Feedback and capture in the circuits of drive. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Deleuze, G. & Guattari, F. (1983). Anti-oedipus: Capitalism and schizophrenia. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Derrida, J. (1978). Writing and difference (A. Bass, Trans.). Londo: University of Chicago Press.

Dollard, J., Doob, L. W., Miller, N. E., Mowrer, O. H. & Sears, R. R. (1939). Frustration and aggression. London: Kegan Paul.

Dreyfus, H. L. & Rabinow, P. (1982). Michel Foucault: Beyond structuralism and hermaneutics. Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press.

Earl, J. & Kimport, K. (2011). Digitally enabled social change: Activism in the internet age. Cambridge: MIT Press.

Edwards, D. & Potter, J. (1992). Discursive psychology. London: Sage.

Edwards, D. (1997). Discourse and cognition. London: Sage.

Ekdale, B., Namkoong, K., Fung, T. K. & Perlmutter, D. D. (2010). Why blog? (Then and now): Exploring the motivations for blogging by popular American political bloggers. New Media & Society, 12(2), 217-234. https://www.doi.org/10.1177%2F1461444809341440

Eyman, D. (2015). Digital rhetoric: Theory, method, practice. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press. https://www.doi.org/10.3998/dh.13030181.0001.001

Fanon, F. (1986). Black skin, white masks (C. L. Markmann, Trans.). London: Pluto Press.

Field Negro. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://field-negro.blogspot.com/ [12 March 2021].

Foucault, M. (1977). Discipline and punish: The birth of the prison (A. Sheridan, Trans.). New York: Vintage.

Freud, A. (1937). The ego and the mechanisms of defence. London: Karnac.

Freud, S. (2001a). Civilization and its discontents (1930). In J. Strachey, A. Freud, A. Strachey & A. Tyson (Eds.), The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 21, pp. 58-147). London: Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psychoanalysis.

Freud, S. (2001b). The ego and the id (1923). In J. Strachey, A. Freud, A. Strachey & A. Tyson (Eds.), The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud (Vol. 19, pp. 3-66). London: Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psychoanalysis.

García-Orosa, B. & López, X. (2019). Language in social networks as a communication strategy: Public administration, political parties and civil society. Communication & Society, 32(1), 111-129. https://www.doi.org/10.15581/003.32.1.111-129

Gecas, V. (2000). Value identities, self-motives, and social movements. In S. Stryker, T. J. Owens & R. W. White (Eds.), Self, identity, and social movements: Social movements, protest, and contention (Vol. 13, pp. 93-109). Minnesota: University of Minnesota Press.

Giddens, A. (1991). Modernity and self-identity: Self and society in the late modern age. Cambridge: Polity Press.

Graham, R. & Smith, D. T. (2010). Dividing lines. Information, Communication & Society, 13(6), 892-908. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/13691180903514344

Graham, R. & Smith, S. (2016). The content of our# characters: Black Twitter as counterpublic. Sociology of Race and Ethnicity, 2(4), 433-449. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/2332649216639067

Habermas, J. (1971). The structural transformation of the public sphere: An inquiry into a category of bourgeois society (B. Burger & F. Lawrence, Trans.). Massachusetts: MIT Press.

Hall, S. (Ed.). (1997). Representation: Cultural representations and signifying practices (Vol. 2). London: Sage.

Haraway, D. (1991). Simians, cyborg and women: The reinvention of nature. New York: Routledge.

Harcup, T. (2015). Alternative journalism as monitorial citizenship? A case study of a local news blog. Digital Journalism, 4(5), 639-657. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/21670811.2015.1063077

Heideggar, M. (1977). The question concerning technology and other essays (W. Lovitt, Trans.). New York: Garland.

Higginbotham, E. B. (1992). African-American women’s history and the metalanguage of race. Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, 17(2), 251-274. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/3174464

Hooks, B. (2009). Belonging: A culture of place. New York: Routledge.

Kojève, A. & Bloom, A. (Eds.). (1969). Introduction to the reading of Hegel: Lectures on the phenomenology of spirit (J. H. Nichols, Jr., Trans.). Ithaca: Basic.

Lacan, J. (1966). Écrits: The first complete edition in English (B. Fink, H. Fink & R. Grigg, Trans.). New York: W. W. Norton & Company.

Mansfield, N. (2000). Subjectivity: Theories of the self from Freud to Haraway. NSW, Australia: Allen & Unwin.

Marshall, P.D. (2006). New media – new self: The changing power of celebrity. In D. Marshall (Ed.), The celebrity culture reader (pp. 634-644). New York: Routledge.

Maslow, A. H. (1943). A theory of human motivation. Psychological Review, 50, 370-396. Retrieved from http://psychclassics.yorku.ca/Maslow/motivation.htm

McKerrow, R. E. (1989). Critical rhetoric: Theory and praxis. Communications Monographs, 56(2), 91-111. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/03637758909390253

Meyers, E. A. (2012). ‘Blogs give regular people the chance to talk back’: Rethinking ‘professional’ media hierarchies in new media. New Media & Society, 14(6), 1022-1038. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/1461444812439052

Nardi, B. A., Schiano, D. J., Gumbrecht, M. & Swartz, L. (2004). Why we blog. Communications of the ACM, 47(12), 41–46. Retrieved from http://www.artifex.org/~bonnie/pdf/Nardi_why_we_blog.pdf

Papic, M. & Noonan, S. (2011). Social media as tool for protest. Stratfor, February 3. Retrieved from https://worldview.stratfor.com/article/social-media-tool-protest

Potter, J. & Wetherell, M. (1987). Discourse and social psychology. Beverly Hills: Sage.

Potter, J. (1996). La representación de la realidad. Discurso, retórica y construcción social. Barcelona: Paidós.

Rheingold, H. (1993). The virtual community: Homesteading on the electronic frontier. Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley Longman.

Rodaway, P. (1995). Exploring the subject in hyper-reality. In S. Pile & N. Thrift (Eds.), Mapping the subject: Geographies of cultural transformation (pp. 241-266). London: Routledge.

Salkind, N. J. (Ed.). (2008). Encyclopedia of educational psychology. California: Sage.

Sánchez-Villar, J. M. (2019). The use of blogs as social media tools of political communication: Citizen journalism and public opinion 2.0., Communication & Society, 32(1), 39-55. https://www.doi.org/10.15581/003.32.1.39-55

Schiele, J. H. (2005). Cultural oppression and the high-risk status of African Americans. Journal of Black Studies, 35(6), 802–826. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/40034882

Scott, T. D. (2007). Pundits in muckrakers’ clothing: Political blogs and the 2004 US presidential election. In M. Tremayne (Ed.), Blogging, citizenship and the future of media (pp. 39–58). New York: Routledge.

Shaw, A. (2017). Encoding and decoding affordances: Stuart Hall and interactive media technologies. Media, Culture & Society, 39(4), 592–602. https://www.doi.org/10.1177%2F0163443717692741

Siles, I. (2011). The rise of blogging: Articulation as a dynamic of technological stabilization. New Media & Society, 14(5), 781–797. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/1461444811425

Singer, J. (2006). Journalists and news bloggers: Complements, contradictions and challenges. In A. Bruns & J. Jacobs (Eds.), Uses of blogs (pp. 23-32). New York: Peter Lang.

Steele, C. K. (2016). The digital barbershop: Blogs and online oral culture within the African American community. Social Media+Society, 2(4), 1–10. https://www.doi.org/10.1177%2F2056305116683205

Steele, C. K. (2018). Black bloggers and their varied publics: The everyday politics of black discourse online. Television & New Media, 19(2) 112-127. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/1527476417709535

Stuff White People Like. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://stuffwhitepeoplelike.com/ [12 March 2021].

The angry black woman. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://theangryblackwoman.wordpress.com/ [12 March 2021].

Tremayne, M. (2007). Blogging, citizenship, and the future of media. New York: Routledge.

Van Fossen, P. & Berson, M. (2008). The electronic republic? The impact of technology on education for citizenship. West Lafayette, IN: Purdue University Press.

Washburn, M. (1988). The ego and the dynamic ground: A transpersonal theory of human development (R. D. Mann & J. B. Mann, Eds.). Albany: State University of New York Press.

Winnicott, D. W. (1965). The maturational process and the facilitating environment: Studies in the theory of emotional development. London: Hogarth Press and the Institute of Psycho-Analysis.

Young, I. M. (1990). Justice and the politics of difference. New Jersey: Princeton University Press.

Metrics





Search GoogleScholar


Details

Article Details

Section
Special Issue: Visual motifs and representations of power in the public sphere