Main Article Content
Twitter recently celebrated its 15th anniversary. During this period, the platform has gone through several phases, culminating in a record number of subscribers and profits in 2021. Twitter is a household name all over the world and people know what it can or cannot provide, independent of the future growth that it may experience with new investments and updates. This article aims to verify two interrelated hypotheses, namely: the Spanish press already knows how to optimise the social network Twitter, as three decades have elapsed since its launch; and, secondly, the algorithm modification implemented by Twitter in 2018 has triggered a change in the positioning of the headers studied in this social network. In order to demonstrate both, the object of analysis will be conducted by a mixed approach through quantitative statistical processes (which will study the number of impacts and retweets and likes obtained), and inductive qualitative methods such as semi-structured interviews. This multidisciplinary approach will provide a more complete and in-depth analysis of the phenomenon. The research focuses on the period between 2018 and 2020, and addresses the participation on Twitter of the four main traditional newspapers (El País, La Vanguardia, ABC and El Mundo) as well as four native digital newspapers (20 Minutos, El Español, elDiario.es and El Huffpost). The analysis comprises more than 1.5 million tweets among the eight chosen newspapers.
Arhi, P. (2009). The Twitter explosion. American Journalism Review. Retrieved from https://ajrarchive.org/article.asp?id=4756
Arrington, M. (2008). I can’t believe some people are still saying Twitter isn’t a news source. TechCrunch. Retrieved from https://techcrunch.com/2008/11/27/i-cant-believe-some-people-are-still-saying-twitter-isnt-a-news-source/
Bump, P. (2019). President Trump, your problem isn’t bias by Twitter. It’s that you tweet too much. The Washington Post. Retrieved from https://www.washingtonpost.com/politics/2019/07/12/president-trump-your-problem-isnt-bias-by-twitter-its-that-you-tweet-too-much/
Butcher, M. (2009). Sky News realises news breaks first on Twitter, not TV – Creates a Twitter Correspondent. TechCrunch. Retrieved from https://techcrunch.com/2009/03/05/sky-news-realises-news-breaks-first-on-twitter-not-tv-creates-a-twitter-correspondent/
Boyd, Danah, S. G. & Gilad, L. (2010) Tweet, Tweet, Retweet: conversational aspects of retweeting on Twitter. In HICSS ‘10: Proceedings of the 2010 43rd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (pp. 1-10). https://www.doi.org/10.1109/HICSS.2010.412
Cabrales, R. (2017). Twitter as a journalistic source. Cuadernos de periodistas: magazine of the Madrid Press Association, 34, 92-101.
Calvo Rubio, L. M. (2018). Twitter as a second screen in political debates on television. Icono14, 16, 160-184. https://www.doi.org/10.7195/ri14.v16i1.1138.
Carlisle, M. (2019). President Donald Trump Is Talking Longer and Tweeting More Than in Past Years: Report. The Time. Retrieved from https://time.com/5683193/trump-tweeting-talking-increase/
Carr, N. (2018). Why Trump Tweets (And Why We Listen) Twitter is a digital drug designed to constantly feed our egos. What does it mean when the addict in question happens to be the most powerful man in the world? Politico Magazine, Jan. 26. Retrieved from https://www.politico.com/magazine/story/2018/01/26/donald-trump-twitter-addiction-216530/
Casero Ripollés, A. (2020). Influence of Media on the Political Conversation on Twitter: Activity, Popularity, and Authority in the Digital Debate in Spain. Icono14, 18,.33-57. https://www.doi.org/ri14.v18i1.1527
Chen, H. T. (2006). A Theory-driven Evaluation Perspective on Mixed Methods Research. Research in the schools, 13(1), 75-83.
Cheng, A., Evans, M. & Singh, H. (2009) Inside Twitter: an in-depth look inside the Twitter world. Report of Sysomos.
Creswell, J. W. (2009). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative and mixed approaches. 3rd ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
Cisco (2020). CISO 2020 Benchmark Report. Cisco. Retrieved from https://www.cisco.com/c/dam/global/es_es/solutions/ES-CISO-Benchmark-Report-2020.pdf
Dale, D. (2019). Trump unleashed: He’s talking more and tweeting more. CNN Politics. Retrieved from https://edition.cnn.com/2019/09/21/politics/trump-unleashed-speaking-tweeting-more/index.html
Ditrendia (2020). Mobile Report in Spain and the World 2020. Retrieved from https://ditrendia.es/informe-mobile-2020/
DeVoe, K. M. (2009). Burst of Information: microblogging. The Reference Librarian, 50, 212-214. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/02763870902762086
Escuder Rodríguez, S. (2019). Politics in networks, networks in politics: case studies of the #LiveWithoutFear campaign. Teknokultura. Journal of Digital Culture and Social Movements, 16, 55-74. https://www.doi.org/10.5209/TEKN.63104
Ericsson (2021). Ericsson Mobility Report. Retrieved from https://www.ericsson.com/en/mobility-report/reports/june-2021
Ericsson (2020). Ericsson Mobility Report. Retrieved from https://www.ericsson.com/en/mobility-report/reports
Frommer, D. an&d Wagner, K. (2017). Twitter only grew by two million users during Trump mania – Facebook grew by 72 million. VOX. Retrieved from https://www.vox.com/2017/2/9/14558890/trump-twitter-user-growth
García de Torres, E., Yezers’Ka, L., Rost, A., Calderín, M., Edo, C., Rojano, M., Said, E., Jerónimo, P., Arcila, C., Serrano, A., Badillo, J. & Corredoira, L. (2015). Use of Twitter and Facebook by Ibero-American media. Information Professional, 20(6) 611-620. https://www.doi.org/10.3145/epi.2011.nov.02
Gessler, K. (2020). Twitter length study: Do longer tweets drive more engagement and referral traffic? Kurt Gessler Medium. Retrieved from https://kurtgessler.medium.com/twitter-length-study-do-longer-tweets-drive-more-engagement-and-referral-traffic-3dd0781363ff
Goldsmith, J. (2021). Twitter Hit 199 Million Daily Active Users Last Quarter; Stock Slumps As Numbers Fall Short Of Forecasts. Deadline. Retrieved from https://deadline.com/2021/04/twitter-hit-199-million-daily-users-last-quarter-stock-slumps-as-numbers-fall-short-of-forecasts-1234746942/
Herrera Damas, S. & Requejo Alemán, J. L. (2012). 10 Good Practices for News Organizations Using Twitter. Journal of Applied Journalism & Media Studies, 1(1), 79-95. https://www.doi.org/10.1386/ajms.1.1.79_1
Hermida, A. (2010). Twittering the news: The emergence of ambient journalism. Journalism practice, 4(3), 297-308. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/17512781003640703
Holcomb, J., Gross, K. & Mitchell, A. (2011). How Mainstream Media Outlets Use Twitter. Pew Research Center: Journalism & Media Staff. Retrieved from https://www.journalism.org/2011/11/14/how-mainstream-media-outlets-use-twitter/
Huang, A. (2016). TweetDay: a better visualization for your Twitter timeline. Medium. Retrieved from https://medium.com/@andyoyellow/tweetday-a-better-visualization-for-your-twitter-timeline-49e95daf4ae
Iglesias Fraga, A. (2021). The co-founder of Twitter came to the social network by chance; a platform around which he does not shirk his challenges in a conversation in which D+I participates. El Español. Retrieved from https://www.elespanol.com/invertia/disruptoresinnovadores/innovadores/tecnologicas/20210531/biz-stone-siempre-subjetividad-moderacion-contenidos-twitter/584692278_0.html
Ingram, M. (2008). Yes, Twitter is a source of journalism. MatthewIngram.com. Retrieved from http://www.mathewingram.com/work/2008/11/yes-twitter-is-a-source-of-journalism/
Ingram, M. (2017). The 140-character president. Columbia Journalism Review. Retrieved from https://www.cjr.org/special_report/trump-twitter-tweets-president.php
Java, A., Song, X., Finin, T. & Tseng, B. (2007). Why We Twitter: understanding microblogging usage and communities. Procedings of the Joint 9th WEBKDD and 1st SNA-KDD Workshop 2007 (pp. 56-65).https://www.doi.org/10.1145/1348549.1348556
Johnson, R. B. & Onwuegbuzie, A. J. (2004). Mixed methods research: A research paradigm whose time has come. Educational Researcher, 33(7), 14-26. https://www.doi.org/10.3102/0013189X033007014
Johnson, S. (2009). How Twitter Will Change the Way We Live. Time. Retrieved from http://content.time.com/time/subscriber/article/0,33009,1902818,00.html
Kiss, J. (2011). Twitter Reveals It Has 100m Active Users. The Guardian. Retrieved from http://www.theguardian.com/technology/pda/2011/sep/08/twitter-active-users
Lasorsa, D. L., Lewis, S. C. & Holton, A. E. (2012). Normalizing Twitter: Journalism Practice in an Emerging Communication Space. Journalism Studies, 13(1), 19-36. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/1461670X.2011.571825
López Cleries, G. (2019). The medium as an affective device in mainstream culture. The Hashtag Feminism and its contradictions. ABOUT: Artistic practices and politics of publishing, 5, 53-60.
Menna, L. (2012). New forms of networked signification: the use of #etiquetas in the 15M movement. Estudios de Lingüística del Español, 34.
Mitchell, A. & Guskin, E. (2013). Twitter news consumers: Young, mobile and educated. Pew Research Center: Journalism & Media Staff. Retrieved from https://www.journalism.org/2013/11/04/twitter-news-consumers-young-mobile-and-educated/
Needleman, S. E. (2021). Twitter Adds Users Through Trump Ban. The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved from https://www.wsj.com/articles/twitter-adds-users-through-trump-ban-11612906287
Pano Alamán, A. (2020). Hashtag politics in Twitter. Vivat Academia. Communication Magazine, 152, 49-68. http://doi.org/10.15178/va.2020.152.49-68
Requejo Alemán, J. L. & Herrera Damas, S. (2011). Disseminating information, the main use of Spanish generalist newspapers on Twitter. Textual & Visual Media: magazine of the Spanish Society of Journalism. 4, 149-182. Retrieved from https://textualvisualmedia.com/index.php/txtvmedia/article/view/150
Romano, A. (2018). At long last, Twitter brought back chronological timelines. Here’s why they’re so beloved. Vox. https://www.vox.com/culture/2018/9/20/17876098/twitter-chronological-timeline-back-finally
Reuters Institute (2020). Reuters Digital News Report. Reuters. Retrieved from https://reutersinstitute.politics.ox.ac.uk/sites/default/files/2020-06/DNR_2020_FINAL.pdf
Reuters Institute (2021). Reuters Digital News Report. Reuters. https://reutersinstitute.politics.ox.ac.uk/sites/default/files/2021-06/Digital_News_Report_2021_FINAL.pdf
Rosen, A. (2017). Tweeting Made Easier. Twitter Blog. Retrieved from https://blog.twitter.com/en_us/topics/product/2017/tweetingmadeeasier
Shear, M. D., Haberman, M., Confessore, N., Yourish, K., Buchanan, L. & Collins, K. (2019). How Trump Reshaped the Presidency in Over 11,000 Tweets. The New York Times. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2019/11/02/us/politics/trump-twitter-presidency.html
Shearer, E. v& Mitchell, A. (2021). News use across social media platforms in 2020. Pew Research, 12 Jan. Retrieved from https://www.pewresearch.org/journalism/wp-content/uploads/sites/8/2021/01/PJ_2021.01.12_News-and-Social-Media_FINAL.pdf
Swasy, A. (2016). How Journalists Use Twitter: The Changing Landscape of U.S. Newsrooms. London: Lexington Books.
Yeste, E. & Franch, P. (2018). Trump vs. the media. Treatment of the press from the US president’s Twitter account. Information Professional, 27(5), 975-983. https://www.doi.org/10.3145/epi.2018.sep.02
By submitting the article for evaluation and subsequent publication in Communication & Society, the AUTHOR exclusively assigns the rights of public communication, reproduction, distribution and sale for commercial exploitation to the University of Navarra through its Publications Service, for the maximum legal term in force -the entire life of the author and seventy years after his death or declaration of death-, in any country, and in any of the current and future edition modalities, both in print and electronic versions.
In the event that the article is not accepted for publication , this transfer of rights lapses with the communication of the refusal to the AUTHOR.
The AUTHOR affirms that the article is unpublished, that it has not been sent simultaneously to another publication medium and that the rights have not been transferred exclusively previously. He is responsible to the University of Navarra through its Publications Service for the authorship and originality of his work, as well as for all pecuniary charges that may arise for the University of Navarra through its Publications Service, in favor of third parties due to actions, claims or conflicts arising from the breach of obligations by the AUTHOR.