Manuel Garrido-Lora e-mail(Login required) , William-N. Sánchez-Decicco e-mail(Login required) , Rubén Rivas-de-Roca e-mail(Login required)

Main Article Content


Manuel Garrido-Lora e-mail(Login required)
William-N. Sánchez-Decicco e-mail(Login required)
Rubén Rivas-de-Roca e-mail(Login required)



The unquestionable predominance of slogans in political communication versus their declining relevance in the commercial kind underpins the objective of this study, which is to gain further insight into the strategies and creative discourses employed by political parties in their campaigning before the general, regional and local elections held in Spain in 2019, whereby the results are compared with those obtained in previous research. The aim is thus to determine the attributes of electoral slogans regarding such aspects as their semantic density, complexity, use of rhetorical devices, core focus or communication efficiency. Accordingly, this study is framed in the field of research on political advertising, employing content analysis. To this end, an analysis was performed on an extensive corpus of 197 slogans, selected according to the criteria of comprehensiveness, relevance and representativeness. In short, it can be claimed that the tendencies noted in previous studies have stabilized, albeit with some new developments in relation to briefness, the use of double or triple slogans, expressive focus, bilingualism, the use of visual resources (such as emoticons) or digital language (contractions), the presence of rhetorical devices, and the relevance of voters and candidates versus political parties, among other factors. Besides the specific evolution of their formal and content-related aspects, we argue that the relevance of political slogans still prevails, and rather than undermining their essence and uses, the advent of social media has instead enhanced them.


slogan, political advertising, election campaigns, content analysis, ad copywriting


Adam, J. M. & Bonhomme, M. (2000). La argumentación publicitaria. Madrid: Cátedra.

Amado, A. (2016). Política pop: De líderes populistas a telepresidentes. Buenos Aires: Ariel.

Ardèvol-Abreu, A. & Gil de Zúniga, H. (2020). “Obstinate partisanship”: Political discussion attributes effects on the development of unconditional party loyalty. International Journal of Communication, 14, 324-345. Retrieved from

Bastos, M. T. Raimundo, R. L. & Travitzki, R. (2013). Gatekeeping Twitter: message diffusion in political hashtags. Media, Culture and Society, 35(2), 260-270.

Bennet, W. L. & Livingston, S. (2018). The disinformation order: Disruptive communication and the decline of democratic institutions. European Journal of Communication, 33(2), 122-139.

Bimber, B. (2014). Digital media in the Obama campaigns of 2008 and 2012: Adaptation to the personalized political communication environment. Journal of Information Technology & Politics, 11(2), 130-150.

Block, E. & Negrine, R. (2017). The populist communication style: toward a critical framework. International Journal of Communication, 11, 178-197. Retrieved from

Boerman, S. C. & Kruikemeier, S. (2016). Consumer responses to promoted tweets sent by brands and political parties. Computers in Human Behavior, 65, 285-294.

Bossetta, M. (2018). The digital architectures of social media: Comparing political campaigning on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and Snapchat in the 2016 US election. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 95(2), 471-496.

Campos-Domínguez, E. & García-Orosa, B. (2018). Comunicación algorítmica en los partidos políticos: automatización de producción y circulación de mensajes. Profesional de la Información, 27(4), 769-777.

Chadwick, A. (2013). The hybrid media system: Politics and power. New York: Oxford University Press.

Chan, R. (2000). The effectiveness of environmental advertising: the role of claim type and the source country green image. International Journal of Advertising, 19(3), 349-375.

Cwalina, W., Falkowski, A. & Newman, B. I. (2011). Political Marketing: Theoretical and Strategic Foundations. New York: Routledge.

Curto, V., Fuentes, J. & Sabaté, J. (2008). Redacción publicitaria. Barcelona: UOC.

Díez de Castro, E. & Galán, J. L. (1988). Análisis del slogan publicitario español. Revista de Economía y Empresa, VIII(22). Retrieved from

D’heer, E. & Verdegem, P. (2014). Conversations about the elections on Twitter: Towards a structural understanding of Twitter’s relation with the political and the media field. European Journal of Communication, 29(6), 720-734.

Dimitrova, D. V. & Matthes, J. (2018). Social media in political campaigning around the world: Theoretical and methodological challenges. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 95(2), 333-342.

Dubois, E. & Blank, G. (2018). The echo chamber is overstated: The moderating effect of political interest and diverse media. Information, Communication & Society, 21(5), 729-745.

Eguizábal, R. (2007). Teoría de la publicidad. Madrid: Cátedra.

Eguizábal, R. (2018). Estudio del eslogan. Funciones, retórica y literalidad. Pensar la Publicidad, 12, 127-144.

Evans, H. K. & Clark, J. H. (2016). “You tweet like a girl!”: How female candidates campaign on Twitter. American Politics Research, 44(2), 326-352.

Fletcher, R. & Nielsen, R. K. (2018). Are people incidentally exposed to news on social media? A comparative analysis. New Media & Society, 20(7), 2450-2468.

Fuchs, C. (2017). Social media: A critical introduction. London: Sage.

Garrido, M. (2000). El eslogan del año 2000. Questiones Publicitarias, 1(8), 68-87. Retrieved from

Garrido, M. & Ramos, M. (2006). La evolución del eslogan en la publicidad gráfica española. Trípodos, Extra, 183-193. Retrieved from

Garrido, M., Rey, J. & Ramos. M. (2012). Evolución y desarrollo del eslogan publicitario: tercer análisis. Pensar la Publicidad, 6(2), 407-426.

Garrido, M. (2013). Estudio comparativo de los eslóganes comerciales y electorales: el caso de las elecciones generales españolas de 2008. Convergencia. Revista de Ciencias Sociales, 61, 173-192. Retrieved from

Gerbaudo, P. (2018). Social media and populism: an elective affinity? Media, Culture & Society, 40(5), 745-753.

Hallin, D. C. & Mancini, P. (2004). Comparing media systems: Three models of media and democracy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hartig, F. (2018). Political slogans as instruments of international government communication – the case of China. The Journal of International Communication, 24(1), 115-137.

Hernández, R. (2007). Claims: entre la inspiración y el método. Anuncios, 1.201, 18-20. Retrieved from

Holt, K., Shehata, A., Strömbäck, J. & Ljungberg, E. (2013). Age and the effects of news media attention and social media use on political interest and participation: Do social media function as leveller? European Journal of Communication, 28(1), 19-34.

Jungherr, A. (2015). Analyzing political communication with digital trace data. New York: Springer.

Karlsen, R. & Enjolras, B. (2016). Styles of social media campaigning and influence in a hybrid political communication system: Linking candidate survey data with Twitter data. International Journal of Press/Politics, 21(3), 338-357.

Keane, J. (2013). Democracy and media decadence. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kemp, E., Bui, M. & Chapa, C. (2012). The role of advertising in consumer emotion management. International Journal of Advertising, 31(2), 339-353.

Krippendorff, K. (2004 [1990]). Content Analysis: And Introduction to Its Methodology (2nd Ed.). London: Sage.

Kreiss, D., Lawrence, R. G. & McGregor, S. C. (2018). In their own words: Political practitioner accounts of candidates, audiences, affordances, genres, and timing in strategic social media use. Political Communication, 35(1), 8-31.

Kruikemeier, S., van Noort, G., Vliegenhart, R. & de Vreese, C. H. (2013). Getting closer: The effects of personalized and interactive online political communication. European Journal of Communication, 28(1), 53-66.

Larsson, A. O. & Ihlen, Ø. (2015). Birds of a feather flock together? Party leaders on Twitter during the 2013 Norwegian elections. European Journal of Communication, 30(6), 666-681.

Loader, B. D. & Mercea, D. (2012). Social media and democracy: Innovations in participatory politics. London: Routledge.

López-García, G. (2016). New vs ‘old’ leaderships: The campaign of Spanish general elections 2015 on Twitter. Communication and Society, 29(3), 149-168.

Mazzoleni, G. & Sfardini, A. (2009). Politica pop. Da ‘Porta Porta’ a ‘L’isola dei famosi’. Bologna: Collata Contemporanea Il Mulino.

McAllister, I. (2007). The personalization of politics. In R. Dalton & H. D. Klingemann (Eds.), The Oxford Handbook of Political Behaviour (pp. 571-588). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Morales, E. (2016). Metáforas para el cambio social. Discurso y Sociedad, 10(4), 781-807.

Muñiz, J. A. (2005). El papel del eslogan en la actitud hacia la marca. Una tentativa de estudio experimental. Questiones Publicitarias, 10, 119-142. Retrieved from

Ociepka, B. (2018). Public diplomacy as political communication: Lessons from case studies. European Journal of Communication, 33(3), 290-303.

Ortega, E., Mora Antón, P. & Rauld Campos, L. (2006). El eslogan en el sector turístico español. Cuadernos de Turismo, 17, 127-146. Retrieved from

Pérez-Curiel, C., Rivas-de-Roca, R. & García-Gordillo, M. (2021). Impact of Trump’s Digital Rhetoric on the US Elections: A View from Worldwide Far-Right Populism. Social Sciences, 10(5), 152.

Pujante, D. & Morales López, E. (2013). Discurso (discurso político), constructivismo y retórica. Los eslóganes del 15-M. Language, Discourse & Society, 2(2), 32-59.

Quevedo-Redondo, R., Portalés-Oliva, M. & Berrocal-Gonzalo, S. (2016). The image use on Twitter during the 2015 municipal election campaign in Spain. Revista Latina de Comunicación Social, 71, 85-107.

Rey, J. (1999). Comunicación política electoral. Elecciones municipales en Sevilla en 1999. Sevilla: MAECEI.

Rey, J. (coord.) (2005). Propaganda electoral. Elementos publicitarios y estrategias comunicativas en las elecciones municipales de Sevilla en 2003. Sevilla: Diputación Provincial de Sevilla.

Rivas-de-Roca, R. & García-Gordillo, M. (2020). Thematic Agenda on Twitter in the 2019 European Parliament Elections: A Comparative Study Between ‘Spitzenkandidaten’ and National Candidates. Tripodos, 49, 29-49.

Romano, M. (2021). Creating new discourses for new feminisms: A critical socio-cognitive approach. Language & Communication, 78, 88-99.

Samuelsen, B. M. & Olsen, L. E. (2010). Promising attributes and experiences. Journal of Advertising, 39(2), 65-77.

Song, C.-M. & Jeon, H.-Y. (2018). A semiotic study of regional branding reflected in the slogans of Korean regions. Social Semiotics, 28(2), 230-256.

Stier, S., Bleier, A., Lietz, H. & Strohmaier, M. (2018). Election campaigning on social media: Politicians, audiences, and the mediation of political communication on Facebook and Twitter. Political Communication, 35(1), 50-74.

Strömbäck, J. & Esser, F. (2009). Shaping Politics: Mediatization and Media Interventionism. In K. Lundby (Ed.), Mediatization. Concepts, Changes, Consequences (pp. 205-223). New York: Peter Lang.

Stromer-Galley, J. (2014). Presidential campaigning in the Internet age. New York: Oxford University Press.

Tucker, J., Guess, A., Barbera, P., Vaccari, C., Siegel, A., Sanovich, S., Stukal, D. & Nyhan, B. (2018). Social media, political polarization, and political disinformation: A review of the scientific literature. Menlo Park: Social Science Research Network.

Vaccari, C. & Valeriani, A. (2015). Follow the leader! Direct and indirect flows of political communication during the 2013 Italian general election campaign. New Media & Society, 17(7), 1025-1042.

Vaes J., Paladino, M. P. & Magagnotti, C. (2011). The Human Message in Politics: The Impact of Emotional Slogans on Subtle Conformity. The Journal of Social Psychology, 151(2), 162-179.

Valera-Ordaz, L. (2019). Liberal individualist, communitarian, or deliberative? Analyzing political discussion on Facebook based on the three notions of democracy. International Journal of Communication, 13, 1056-1076. Retrieved from

Van Aelst, P., Sheafer, T. & Stanyer J. (2012). The personalization of mediated political communication: A review of concepts, operationalizations and key findings. Journalism, 13(2), 203-220.

Van Kessel, S. & Castelein, R. (2016). Shifting the blame. Populist politicians’ use of Twitter as a tool of opposition. Journal of Contemporary European Research, 12(2), 594-614. Retrieved from

Verweij, P. (2012). Twitter links between politicians and journalists. Journalism Practice, 6(5-6), 680-691.


Search GoogleScholar


Article Details