Marta Mensa e-mail(Login required) , Lizardo Vargas-Bianchi e-mail(Login required)

Main Article Content

Authors

Marta Mensa e-mail(Login required)
Lizardo Vargas-Bianchi e-mail(Login required)

Abstract

301

This study examines the prevalence of emotional appeals in COVID-19-themed brand advertisements from around the world in the months immediately following the World Health Organization’s declaration of the coronavirus outbreak as a pandemic. The study analyses the frequencies of use of positive and negative emotional appeals in the content of the ads, and concurrent combinations of such appeals. A content analysis was conducted on a sample of 376 ads from the “Ads of The World” digital archive. The results reveal a preference for positive emotions, with nurturance and affiliation being the most frequent. Sorrow was the third most preferred emotional appeal, and the most used negative emotion. Some brands have compared the virus to a hurricane (Brazil), an assassin with a chainsaw (US) or the death personified (Peru). Advertisers should be careful when using negative emotional appeal content during COVID-19. According to the law of apparent reality, during times of stress the recommendation is to be cautious with negative emotions, as they may be felt more intensely by consumers. Advertising has a social responsibility, which can be directed at promoting consumer behaviours that leave a positive or negative impact on their communities. In a situation such as the pandemic, brand communication professionals must use emotions rigorously, employing this resource to contribute to society, avoiding giving rise to harmful attitudes or behaviours. The research findings are consistent with the literature and lead to future examination of emotional appeals in advertising in stressful and uncertain circumstances.

Keywords

Emotional appeals, COVID-19, communication, brand advertisements

References

Aaker, D., Stayman, D. & Hagerty, M. R. (1986). Warmth in Advertising: Measurement, Impact and Sequence Effects. Journal of Consumer Research, 12(4), 365-381. https://www.doi.org/10.1086/208524

Abele, A. E. & Gendolla, G. H. (1999). Satisfaction Judgments in Positive and Negative Moods: Effects of Concurrent Assimilation and Contrast Producing Processes. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25(7), 883-895. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/0146167299025007010

Ahmad, W., Stufhaut, M. & Labianca, J. (2017). Collaborative Dynamics of Creative Teams: Modelling Creative Process in Advertising Design. Business & Economic Review, 9(4), 157-180. https://www.doi.org/10.22547/ber/9.4

Ahorsu, D. K., Lin, C. Y., Imani, V., Saffari, M., Griffiths, M. D. & Pakpour, A. H. (2020). The fear of COVID-19 scale: Development and initial validation. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 1-9. https://www.doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00270-8

Albers‐Miller, N. D. & Stafford, R. M. (1999). An international analysis of emotional and rational appeals in services vs goods advertising. Journal of Consumer Marketing, 16(1), 42-57. https://www.doi.org/10.1108/07363769910250769

Aranguren, M. (2017). Reconstructing the social constructionist view of emotions: from language to culture, including nonhuman culture. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 47(2), 244-260. https://www.doi.org/10.1111/jtsb.12132

Averill, J. R. (1980). A Constructivist View of Emotion. In R. Plutchik & H. Kellerman (Eds.), Emotion: Theory, Research, and Experience, vol. I (pp. 305-39). New York: Academic Press. https://www.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-558701-3.50018-1

Basil, D. Z., Ridgeway, N. M. & Basil, M. D. (2006). Guilt Appeals: The Mediating Effect of Responsibility, Psychology and Marketing, 23(12), 1035-54. https://www.doi.org/10.1002/mar.20145

Bell, L., Vogt, J., Willemse, C., Routledge, T., Butler, L. T. & Sakaki, M. (2018). Beyond self-report: A review of physiological and neuroscientific methods to investigate consumer behavior. Frontiers in psychology, 9, 1655. https://www.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2018.01655

Belli, S. & Harré, R. (2010). What is love? Discourse about emotions in social sciences. Human Affairs, 20(3), 249-270. https://www.doi.org/10.2478/v10023-010-0026-8

Bhatia, T. K. (2019). Emotions and language in advertising. World Englishes, 38(3), 435-449. https://www.doi.org/10.1111/weng.12420

Berger, J. & Milkman, K. L. (2012). What Makes Online Content Viral? Journal of Marketing Research, 49(2), 192-205. https://www.doi.org/10.1509/jmr.10.0353

Bleakley, A., Jordan, A. B., Hennessy, M., Glanz, K., Strasser, A. & Vaala, S. (2015). Do emotional appeals in public service advertisements influence adolescents' intention to reduce consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages? Journal of Health Communication, 20(8), 938-948. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/10810730.2015.1018593

Brennan, L. & Binney, W. (2010). Fear, guilt, and shame appeals in social marketing. Journal of business Research, 63(2), 140-146. https://www.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2009.02.006

Brooks, M. E., Craig, C. M. & Bichard, S. (2020). Exploring Ads of the World: How Social Issues Are Framed in Global Advertisements. Howard Journal of Communications, 31(2), 150-170, https://www.doi.org/10.1080/10646175.2019.1666068

Bueno-Notivol, J., Gracia-García, P., Olaya, B., Lasheras, I., López-Antón, R. & Santabárbara, J. (2021). Prevalence of depression during the COVID-19 outbreak: a meta-analysis of community-based studies. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 1-11, https://www.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijchp.2020.07.007

Chang, W. Y. & Chang, I. (2014). The influences of humorous advertising on brand popularity and advertising effects in the tourism industry. Sustainability, 6, 9205-9217. https://www.doi.org/10.3390/su6129205

Clarke, I. & Schmidt, R. A. (1995). Beyond the service scape: The experience of place. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 2(3), 149-162. https://www.doi.org/10.1016/0969-6989(95)00055-0

Coleman, J. T., Royne, M. B. & Pounders, K. R. (2020). Pride, Guilt, and Self-Regulation in Cause-Related Marketing Advertisements. Journal of Advertising, 49(1), 34-60. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/00913367.2019.1689871

Coulter, R. & Pinto, M. B. (1995). Guilt Appeals in Advertising: What Are Their Effects? Journal of Applied Psychology, 80(6), 697-705. https://www.doi.org/10.1037//0021-9010.80.6.697

Cowan, K. (2020). Survey results: Understanding people's concerns about the mental health impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. London, UK: Academy of Medical Sciences. https://www.doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30168-1

Czarnecka, B. & Mogaji, E. (2020). How are we tempted into debt? Emotional appeals in loan advertisements in UK newspapers. International Journal of Bank Marketing, 38(3), 756-776. https://www.doi.org/10.1108/IJBM-07-2019-0249

Deborah, A. S. & Nicole, M. V. (2009). The Face of Need: Facial Emotion Expression on Charity Advertisements. Journal of Marketing Research, 46, 777-787. https://www.doi.org/10.1509/jmkr.46.6.777_JMR6F

Decrop, A. & Derbaix, C. (2010). Pride in Contemporary Sport Consumption: A Marketing Perspective. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 38(5), 586-603. https://www.doi.org/10.1007/s11747- 009-0167-8

Dens, N. & De Pelsmacker, P. (2010). Consumer Response to Different Advertising Ap-peals for New Products: The Moderating Influence of Branding Strategy and Product Category Involvement. Journal of Brand Management, 18, 50-65. https://www.doi.org/10.1057/bm.2010.22

Drakulich, K. M. (2015). Concerns for self or family? Sources of and responses to altruistic fear. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 30(7), 1168-1207. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/088626051453984

Durkin, S., Bayly, M., Brennan, E., Biener, L. & Wakefield, M. (2018). Fear, sadness and hope: Which emotions maximize impact of anti-tobacco mass media advertisements among lower and higher SES groups? Journal of Health Communication, 23(5), 445-461. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/10810730.2018.1463320

Enciso, G. & Lara, A. (2014). Emotions and social sciences in 20th century: the affective turn prequel. Athenea Digital, 14(1), 263-288. https://www.doi.org//10.5565/rev/athenead/v14n1.1094

Evans A. I., Adamo G. E. & Czarnecka, B. (2019). European Destination managers ambivalence towards the use of shocking advertising. In Advances in Advertising Research X (pp. 205-214). Wiesbaden: Springer Gabler https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-658-24878-9_16

Faseur, T. & Geuens, M. (2006). Different positive feelings leading to different ad evaluations: The case of coziness, excitement, and romance. Journal of Advertising, 35(4), 129-142, https://www.doi.org/10.2753/JOA0091-3367350409

Fitzpatrick, K. M., Harris, C. & Drawve, G. (2020). Fear of COVID-19 and the mental health consequences in America. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, Advance online publication. https://www.doi.org//10.1037/tra0000924

Frijda, N. H. (1986). The Emotions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Fredrickson, B. L. (2001). The role of positive emotions in positive psychology. Am Psychol, 56(3), 218-226. https://www.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.56.3.218

Fredrickson, B. L. (1998). What good are positive emotions? Rev Gen Psychol, 2(3), 300-319. https://doi.org/10.1037/1089-2680.2.3.300

Fredrickson, B. L. & Levenson R. W. (1998). Positive emotions speed recovery from the cardiovascular sequelae of negative emotions. Cogn Emot, 12(2), 191-220. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/026999398379718

Fredrickson, B. L., Mancuso R. A., Branigan, C. & Tugade, M. (2000). The undoing effect of positive emotions. Motiv Emot, 24(4), 237-258. https://www.doi.org/10.1023/A:1010796329158

Furnham, A (2019). Advertising: The contribution of applied cognitive psychology. Applied Cognitive Psychology, 33(2), 168-175, https://www.doi.org/10.1002/acp.3458

Garfin, D. R., Silver, R. C. & Holman, E. A. (2020). The novel coronavirus (COVID-2019) outbreak: Amplification of public health consequences by media exposure. Health Psychology, 39(5), 355-357. https://doi.org/10.1037/hea0000875

Giachino, C., Stupino, M., Petrarulo, G. & Bertoldi, B. (2017). Fear Appeals in Social Marketing: The Case of Anti-Speeding Video Advertisement "Mistakes". Journal of Customer Behaviour, 16, 61-74. https://www.doi.org/10.1362/147539217X14909732699480

Gross, K. (2008). Framing persuasive appeals: Episodic and thematic framing, emotional response, and policy opinion. Political Psychology, 29(2), 169-192. https://www.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9221.2008.00622.x

Grossman, M. & Wood, W. (1993). Sex Differences in Intensity of Emotional Experience: A Social Role interpretation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 65(5), 1010-1022. https://www.doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.65.5.1010

Hagtvedt, H. & Patrick, V. (2008). Art infusion: The influence of Visual Art on the Perception and Evaluation of Consumer Products. Journal of Marketing Research, 45(3), 379-389. https://www.doi.org/10.1509/jmkr.45.3.379.

Han, J. Y., Shaw, B. R., Hawkins, R. P., Pingree, S., McTavish, F. & Gustafson, D. H. (2008). Expressing positive emotions within online support groups by women with breast cancer. Journal of Health Psychology, 13(8), 1002-1007. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/1359105308097963

Havlena, W. J. & Holak, S. L. (1991). The good old days: observations on nostalgia and its role in consumer behavior. In R. H. Holman & M. R. Solomon (Eds.), Advances in consumer research 18 (pp. 323-329). Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research.

Herrando, C. & Constantinides, E. (2021). Emotional contagion: a brief overview and future directions. Frontiers in psychology, 12, 712606. https://www.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2021.712606

Hetsroni, A (2000). The relationship between values and appeals in Israeli advertising: A smallest space analysis. Journal of Advertising, 29(3), 55-68. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/00913367.2000.10673617

Heyn, L., Ellington, L. & Eide, H. (2017). An exploration of how positive emotions are expressed by older people and nurse assistants in homecare visits. Patient Education and Counseling, 100(11), 2125-2127. https://www.doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2017.05.020

Holbrook, M. B. & Schindler, R. M. (1991). Echoes of the dear departed past: some work in progress on nostalgia. In R. H. Holman & M. R. Solomon (Eds.), Advances in consumer research 18 (pp. 330-333). Provo, UT: Association for Consumer Research.

Hong, J. W. & Zinkhan, G. M. (1995). Self‐concept and advertising effectiveness: The influence of congruency, conspicuousness, and response mode. Psychology & Marketing, 12(1), 53-77. https://www.doi.org/10.1002/mar.4220120105

Hornik, J., Ofir, C. & Rachamim, M. (2017). Advertising Appeals, Moderators, And Impact on Persuasion. Journal of Advertising Research, 57(3), 305-318. https://www.doi.org/10.2501/JAR-2017-017

Huang, Y. & Zhao, N. (2020). Generalized anxiety disorder, depressive symptoms and sleep quality during COVID-19 epidemic in China: A web-based cross-sectional survey. MedRXiv. https://www.doi.org//10.1101/ 2020.02.19.20025395

Johar, J. S. & Sirgy, M. J. (1991). Value-expressive versus utilitarian advertising appeals: When and why to use which appeal. Journal of advertising, 20(3), 23-33. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/00913367.1991.10673345

Kobau, R., Seligman, M. E., Peterson, C., Diener, E., Zack, M. M., Chapman, D. & Thompson, W. (2011). Mental health promotion in public health: Perspectives and strategies from positive psychology. American journal of public health, 101(8), e1-e9. https://www.doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2010.300083

Kemp, E., Kennett-Hensel, P. A. & Kees, J. (2013) Pulling on the heartstrings: Examining the effects of emotions and gender in persuasive appeals. Journal of Advertising, 42(1), 69-79. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/00913367.2012.749084

Kotler, P. (2003). Marketing management (11th ed.) New Jersey: Prentice Hall.

Kotler, P. & Armstrong, G. (1991). Principles of marketing (5th ed.). New Jersey: Prentice Hall Inc.

Krippendorff, K. (2019). The changing landscape of content analysis: Reflections on social construction of reality and beyond. Communication & Society, 47, 1-27. Retrieved from https://repository.upenn.edu/asc_papers/604

Krishen, A. S. & Bui, M. (2015). Fear Advertisements: Influencing Consumers to Make Better Health Decisions. International Journal of Advertising, 34, 533-548. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/02650487.2014.996278

Leder, H., Belke, B., Oeberst, A. & Augustin, D. (2004). A Model of Aesthetic Appreciation and Aesthetic Judgments. British Journal of Psychology, 95(4), 489-508. https://www.doi.org/10.1348/0007126042369811

Li, S. (2019). Emotional Appeals in Tourism TV Commercials: A Psycho-Physiological Study, Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research, 43(6), 783-806. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/10963480198284

Lin, L.-Y. (2011). The impact of advertising appeals and advertising spokespersons on advertising attitudes and purchase intentions. African Journal of Business Management, 5(21), 8446-8457. https://www.doi.org/ 10.5897/ajbm11.925

Mantovani, D. & Tazima, D. I. (2016). Visual art and regulatory fit messages on consumer evaluations. Revista de Administração de Empresas, 56(2), 152-165. https://www.doi.org/10.1590/S0034-759020160203

Marchegiani, C. & Phau, I. (2013). Personal and historical nostalgia. A comparison of common emotions. Journal of Global Marketing, 26(3), 137-146. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/08911762.2013.804617

Meadows-Oliver, M. & Hendrie, J. (2013). Expanded back to sleep guidelines. Pediatric Nursing, 39, 40-49.

Mejova, Y. & Kalimeri, K. (2020). Advertisers Jump on Coronavirus Bandwagon: Politics, News, and Business, arXiv preprint arXiv:2003.00923.

Meyers-Levy, J. & Sternthal, B. (1991). Gender differences in the use of message cues and judgments. Journal of Marketing Research, 28(1), 84-98. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/0022243791028001

Mogaji, E. (2016). Emotional appeals in UK banks' print advertisement (Doctoral dissertation, University of Bedfordshire, UK). Retrieved from http://hdl.handle.net/10547/622103

Nabi, R. L. (2003). Exploring the framing effects of emotion: Do discrete emotions differentially influence information accessibility, information seeking, and policy preference? Communication Research, 30, 224-247. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/009365020225088

Neuendorf K. A. (2018). Content analysis and thematic analysis. In P. Brough (Ed.), Advanced research methods for applied psychology: design, analysis and reporting (pp. 211-223). London, UK: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315517971-21

Opeodu, O. I. & Gbadebo, S. O. (2017). Factors influencing choice of oral hygiene products by dental patients in a Nigerian Teaching Hospital. Annals of Ibadan Postgraduate Medicine, 15(1), 51-56.

Panda, T. K., Panda, T. K. & Mishra, K. (2013). Does emotional appeal work in advertising? The rationality behind using emotional appeal to create favorable brand attitude. IUP Journal of Brand Management, 10(2), 7.

Pinto, M. B. & Yagnik, A. (2017). Fit for life: A content analysis of fitness tracker brands use of Facebook in social media marketing. Journal of Brand Management 24(1), 49-67. https://www.doi.org/10.1057/s41262-016-0014-4

Poels, K. & Dewitte, S. (2019). The role of emotions in advertising: a call to action. Journal of Advertising, 48(1), 81-90. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/00913367.2019.1579688

Pollay, R. W. (1983). Measuring the cultural values manifest in advertising. Current issues and research in advertising, 6(1), 71-92. https://www.doi.org/ 10.1080/01633392.1983.10505333

Reichert, T. & Lambiase, J. (Eds.) (2014). Sex in advertising: Perspectives on the erotic appeal. New York: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781410607065

Rhodes, N. (2017). Fear-Appeal Messages: Message Processing and Affective Attitudes, Communication Research, 64(2), 1-24. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/009365021456591

Riffe, D., Lacy, S., Fico, F. & Watson, B. (2019). Analyzing media messages: Using quantitative content analysis in research. New York: Routledge. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429464287

Rochford, E. D. (2011). Communication studies. New York, Bloomington: iUniverse, Inc.

Ross, A. A. (2006). Coming in from the Cold: Constructivism and Emotions. European journal of international relations, 12(2), 197-222. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/135406610606450

Royo-Vela, M. (2005). Emotional and Informational Content in Commercials, Journal of Current Issues and Research in Advertising, (Fall), 13-38. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/10641734.2005.10505179

Sontag, J. M. (2018). Visual framing effects on emotion and mental health message effectiveness. Journal of Communication in Healthcare, 11(1), 30-47. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/17538068.2018.1435017

Sloan, M. M., Haner, M., Graham, A., Cullen, F. T., Pickett, J. T. & Jonson, C. L. (2021). Pandemic Emotions: The Extent, Correlates, and Mental Health Consequences of Personal and Altruistic Fear of COVID-19, Sociological Spectrum, 41(5), 369-386. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/02732173.2021.1926380

Stern, B. B. (1992). Historical and personal nostalgia in advertising text: The fin de siècle effect. Journal of Advertising, 24(4), 11-22. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/00913367.1992.10673382

Turnbull, S. & Wheeler, C. (2017). The advertising creative process: A study of UK agencies. Journal of Marketing Communications, 23(2), 176-194. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/13527266.2014.1000361

Turner, M. M. (2007). Using emotion in risk communication: The anger activism model. Public Relations Review, 33(2), 114-119. https://www.doi.org/10.1016/j.pubrev.2006.11.013

UN News (2020). UN leads call to protect most vulnerable from mental health crisis during and after COVID-19. Retrieved from https://news.un.org/en/story/2020/05/1063882

Vanden Bergh, B. & Stuhlfaut, M. (2006). Is advertising creativity primarily an individual or a social process? Mass communication & society, 9(4), 373-397. https://www.doi.org/10.1207/s15327825mcs0904_1

Vargas-Bianchi, L. & Mensa, M. (2020). Do you remember me? Women sexual objectification in advertising among young consumers. Young Consumers, 21(1), 77-90. https://www.doi.org/10.1108/YC-04-2019-0994

Wang, C. L. (2008). Gender Difference in Responding to Sad Emotional Appeal: A Moderated Mediation Explanation. Journal of Nonprofit and Public Sector Marketing, 19(1), 55-70. https://www.doi.org/10.1300/J054v19n01_03

Wu, C., Sundiman, D., Kao, S. C. & Chen, C. H. (2018). Emotion induction in click intention of picture advertisement: a field examination. Journal of Internet Commerce, 17(4), 356-382. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/15332861.2018.1463803

Xie, T., Donthu, N., Lohtia, R. & Osmonbekov, T. (2004). Emotional appeal and incentive offering in banner advertisements. Journal of Interactive Advertising, 4(2), 30-37. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/15252019.2004.10722085

Zarzosa, J. & Huhmann, B. A. (2019). Measures of aesthetic dimensions and reactions in advertising. International Journal of Advertising, 38(2), 258-275. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/02650487.2018.1442632

Zhang, N., Song, J., Chen, K, & Jia, S. (2022). Emotional contagion in the propagation of online rumors. Issues in Information Systems, 23(2), pp. 1-19. https://www.doi.org/10.48009/2_iis_2022_101

Zhang, H., Sun, J., Liu, F. & Knight, J. G. (2014). Be rational or be emotional: Advertising appeals, service types and consumer responses. European Journal of Marketing, 48(11/12). https://www.doi.org/10.1108/ejm-10-2012-0613

Zheng, M. X. (2020). When and Why Negative Emotional Appeals Work in Advertising: A Review of Research. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 8, 7-16. https://www.doi.org/10.4236/jss.2020.83002

Metrics

Search GoogleScholar


Details

Article Details

Section
Articles