Main Article Content
Social media are nowadays used in all sectors, and likewise frequently within the sports industry. However, there is a lack of studies that offer a holistic understanding of the phenomenon of social media engagement (SME) in this area. Thus, the main object of the present study was the elaboration of a systematic review of the existing literature of the past ten years about SME within the field of sports events. The study was carried out following the PRISMA guidelines. By searching the databases Web of Science, Scopus, ProQuest, and Academic Search Ultimate, we identified 208 studies. After screening and reviewing for eligibility, we finally included 28 articles in the present study. The methodologies, types of analysis applied, main objectives, and the results on SME of the articles included in the synthesis were systematically reviewed. The findings showed that only four articles had as a principal theme the SME. Social media offer a useful tool for engagement, but SME adopts must still gain greater recognition. The need to co-create with users and engage them on social media, due to the great utility of social media in this sector is highlighted based on the results. It was found that SME around sports events remains an emerging and still developing research field which presents a wide range of future research lines.
Abuín-Penas, J., Martínez Patiño, M. J. & Míguez-González, M. I. (2019). Spanish Winter Olympic athlete’s communication on Instagram. Journal of Human Sport and Exercise., 14(Proc4), S780-S791. https://www.doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2019.14.Proc4.40
Aichner, T., Grünfelder, M., Maurer, O. & Jegeni, D. (2021). Twenty-Five Years of Social Media: A Review of Social Media Applications and Definitions from 1994 to 2019. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 24(4), 215-222. https://www.doi.org/10.1089/cyber.2020.0134
Alalwan, A. A., Rana, N. P., Dwivedi, Y. K & Algharabat, R. (2017). Social media in marketing: A review and analysis of the existing literature. Telematics and Informatics, 34(7), 1177-1190. https://www.doi.org/10.1016/j.tele.2017.05.008
Alonso Dos Santos, M., Velasco Vizcaino, F. & Pérez Campos, C. (2020). The influence of patriotism and fans’ fulfilment of sponsorship activation in the sponsor’s image transfer process. Sport in Society, 23(2), 280-295. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/17430437.2019.1619700
Annamalai, B., Yoshida, M., Varshney, S., Pathak, A. A. & Venugopal, P. (2021). Social media content strategy for sport clubs to drive fan engagement. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 62(102648). https://www.doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2021.102648
Arora, M. P., Krenchel, M., McAuliffe, J. & Ramaswamy, P. (2018). Contextual Analytics: Towards a Practical Integration of Human and Data Science Approaches in the Development of Algorithms. Ethnographic Praxis in Industry Conference Proceedings, 2018(1), 224-244. https://www.doi.org/10.1111/1559-8918.2018.01205
Barger, V., Peltier, J. W. & Schultz, D. E. (2016). Social media and consumer engagement: A review and research agenda. Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, 10(4), 268-287. https://www.doi.org/10.1108/JRIM-06-2016-0065
Bober, M. (2014). Twitter and TV events: An exploration of how to use social media for student-led research. Aslib Journal of Information Management, 66(3), 297-312. https://www.doi.org/10.1108/AJIM-09-2013-0097
Boyd, D. M. & Ellison, N. B. (2007). Social Network Sites: Definition, History, and Scholarship. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 13(1), 210-230. https://www.doi.org/10.1111/j.1083-6101.2007.00393.x
Brodie, R. J., Hollebeek, L. D., Juric, B. & Ilic, A. (2011). Customer engagement: Conceptual Domain, Fundamental Propositions, and Implications for Research. Journal of service research, 14(3), 252-271. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/1094670511411703
Brodie, R. J., Ilic, A., Juric, B. & Hollebeek, L. (2013). Consumer engagement in a virtual brand community: An exploratory analysis. Journal of Business Research, 66(1), 105-114. https://www.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2011.07.029
Buehler, B. (2020). Alternative Telecasts and the Ongoing Fracturing of Sports Television. Journal of Sports Media, 15(2), 117-135. https://www.doi.org/10.1353/jsm.2020.0005
Burgers, C., Beukeboom, C. J., Smith, P. A. L. & van Biemen, T. (2022). How live Twitter commentaries by professional sports clubs can reveal intergroup dynamics. Computers in Human Behavior, 139(107528). https://www.doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2022.107528
Burton, J. L., Mueller, K. M., Gollins, J. & Walls, D. M. (2019). The Impact of Airing Super Bowl Television Ads Early on Social Media Benefits and Drivers of Watching, Liking, and Sharing Advertisements on Social Media. Journal of Advertising Research, 59(4), 391-401. https://www.doi.org/10.2501/JAR-2019-016
Burton, N., Naraine, M. L. & Scott, O. (2021). Exploring Paralympic digital sponsorship strategy: An analysis of social media activation. Managing Sport and Leisure, 1-17. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/23750472.2021.1990789
Capriotti, P. & Zeler, I. (2020). Comparing Facebook as an interactive communication tool for companies in LatAm and worldwide. Communication & Society, 33(3), 119-136. https://www.doi.org/10.15581/003.33.3.119-136
Caro Vásquez, M., Elasri Ejjaberi, A., Aparicio Chueca, P. & Triadó Ivern, X. (2021). Relación entre el engagement por uso de redes sociales y la práctica de ejercicio físico en los centros deportivos municipales de Barcelona. Retrieved from http://diposit.ub.edu/dspace/handle/2445/184631
Cuevas-Molano, E., Sánchez-Cid, M. & Gordo-Molina, V. (2022). Brand strategy and content management on Instagram: scheduling and message length as factors to improve engagement. Communication & Society, 35(2), 71-87. https://www.doi.org/10.15581/003.35.2.71-87
D’Andréa, C. & Stauff, M. (2022). Mediatized Engagements with Technologies: “Reviewing” the Video Assistant Referee at the 2018 World Cup. Communication & Sport, 10(5), 830-853. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/21674795221076882
De Vries, L., Gensler, S. & Leeflang, P. S. H. (2012). Popularity of Brand Posts on Brand Fan Pages: An Investigation of the Effects of Social Media Marketing. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 26(2), 83-91. https://www.doi.org/10.1016/j.intmar.2012.01.003
Doyle, J. P., Su, Y. & Kunkel, T. (2022). Athlete branding via social media: Examining the factors influencing consumer engagement on Instagram. European Sport Management Quarterly, 22(4), 506-526. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/16184742.2020.1806897
Einsle, C. S., & Escalera Izquierdo, G. (2022). Taekwondo championship participant’s social networking sites usage profile: A descriptive study. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 22(7), 1723-1731. https://www.doi.org/10.7752/jpes.2022.07216
Escamilla-Fajardo, P., Alguacil, M. & López-Carril, S. (2021). Incorporating TikTok in higher education: Pedagogical perspectives from a corporal expression sport sciences course. Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education, 28(100302). https://www.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhlste.2021.100302
Filo, K., Lock, D. & Karg, A. (2015). Sport and social media research: A review. Sport Management Review, 18(2), 166-181. https://www.doi.org/10.1016/j.smr.2014.11.001
Gangi, P. M. D. & Wasko, M. M. (2016). Social Media Engagement Theory: Exploring the Influence of User Engagement on Social Media Usage. Journal of Organizational and End User Computing (JOEUC), 28(2), 53-73. https://www.doi.org/10.4018/JOEUC.2016040104
García-Fernández, J., Elasri-Ejjaberi, A., Pérez-Tur, F., Triadó-Ivern, X. M., Herrera-Torres, L. & Aparicio-Chueca, P. (2017). Social networks in fitness centres: The impact of fan engagement on annual turnover. Journal of Physical Education and Sport, 17(3), 1068-1077. https://www.doi.org/10.7752/jpes.2017.03164
Grönroos, C. & Voima, P. (2013). Critical service logic: Making sense of value creation and co-creation. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 41(2), 133-150. https://www.doi.org/10.1007/s11747-012-0308-3
Hayes Sauder, M. & Blaszka, M. (2018). 23 players, 23 voices: An examination of the US women’s national soccer team on Twitter during the 2015 World Cup. Communication & Sport, 6(2), 175-202. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/2167479516685579
Hoeber, O., Hoeber, L., El Meseery, M., Odoh, K. & Gopi, R. (2016). Visual Twitter Analytics (Vista) Temporally changing sentiment and the discovery of emergent themes within sport event tweets. Online Information Review, 40(1), 25-41. https://www.doi.org/10.1108/OIR-02-2015-0067
Hollebeek, L. D., Glynn, M. S. & Brodie, R. J. (2014). Consumer Brand Engagement in Social Media: Conceptualization, Scale Development and Validation. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 28(2), 149-165. https://www.doi.org/10.1016/j.intmar.2013.12.002
Hopkins, J. L. (2013). Engaging Australian Rules Football fans with social media: A case study. International Journal of Sport Management and Marketing, 13(1-2). https://www.doi.org/10.1504/IJSMM.2013.055197
Jacobson, J. (2016). Networked spectators Social Media conversation and moderation at the Olympic opening ceremony. Online Information Review, 40(6), 746-760. https://www.doi.org/10.1108/OIR-02-2016-0044
Jin, X. & Cheng, M. (2020). Communicating mega events on Twitter: Implications for destination marketing. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 37(6), 739-755. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/10548408.2020.1812466
Judge, L. W., Lee, D., Surber, K., Bellar, D., Petersen, J., Ivan, E. & Kim, H. J. (2013). The Promotion and Perception of the Youth Olympic Games: A Korean Perspective. ICHPER-SD Journal of Research, 8(2), 12-18.
Kaplan, A. M. & Haenlein, M. (2010). Users of the world, unite! The challenges and opportunities of Social Media. Business Horizons, 53(1), 59-68. https://www.doi.org/10.1016/j.bushor.2009.09.003
Keele, S. (2007). Guidelines for performing systematic literature reviews in software engineering. Technical report.
Khan, I. (2022). Do brands’ social media marketing activities matter? A moderation analysis. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 64, 102794. https://www.doi.org/10.1016/j.jretconser.2021.102794
Kharouf, H., Biscaia, R., García-Pérez, A. & Hickman, E. (2020). Understanding online event experience: The importance of communication, engagement and interaction. Journal of Business Research, 121, 735-746. https://www.doi.org/10.1016/j.jbusres.2019.12.037
Kuss, D. J. & Griffiths, M. D. (2017). Social Networking Sites and Addiction: Ten Lessons Learned. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 14(3), Article 3. https://www.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14030311
Latififard, M., Saffari, M., Norouzi Seyed Hossini, R. & Bahrani, M. (2020). A Systematic Review of Sports-Related Studies on Social Media. Communication Research, 27(102), 151-169. https://www.doi.org/10.22082/cr.2020.121468.2004
Li, B., Scott, O. K. M. & Dittmore, S. W. (2018). Twitter and Olympics: Exploring factors which impact fans following American Olympic Governing Bodies. International Journal of Sports Marketing & Sponsorship, 19(4), 370-383. https://www.doi.org/10.1108/IJSMS-04-2017-0030
Li, X. (Leah) & Feng, J. (2021). Empowerment or disempowerment: Exploring stakeholder engagement in nation branding through a mixed method approach to social network analysis. Public Relations Review, 47(3), 102024. https://www.doi.org/10.1016/j.pubrev.2021.102024
Liberati, A., Altman, D. G., Tetzlaff, J., Mulrow, C., Gøtzsche, P. C., Ioannidis, J. P. A., Clarke, M., Devereaux, P. J., Kleijnen, J. & Moher, D. (2009). The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate healthcare interventions: Explanation and elaboration. BMJ, 339, b2700. https://www.doi.org/10.1136/bmj.b2700
Lim, J. S., Hwang, Y., Kim, S. & Biocca, F. A. (2015). How social media engagement leads to sports channel loyalty: Mediating roles of social presence and channel commitment. Computers in Human Behavior, 46, 158-16. https://www.doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2015.01.013
Liu-Thompkins, Y. & Rogerson, M. (2012). Rising to Stardom: An Empirical Investigation of the Diffusion of User-generated Content. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 26(2), 71-82. https://www.doi.org/10.1016/j.intmar.2011.11.003
López-Carril, S., Alguacil, M. & Anagnostopoulos, C. (2022). LinkedIn in sport management education: Developing the students’ professional profile boosting the teaching-learning process. The International Journal of Management Education, 20(1), 100611. https://www.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijme.2022.100611
López-Carril, S., Anagnostopoulos, C. & Parganas, P. (2020). Social media in sport management education: Introducing LinkedIn. Journal of Hospitality, Leisure, Sport & Tourism Education, 27, 100262. https://www.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhlste.2020.100262
Ma, L., Ou, W. & Sian Lee, C. (2022). Investigating consumers’ cognitive, emotional, and behavioral engagement in social media brand pages: A natural language processing approach. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 54, 101179. https://www.doi.org/10.1016/j.elerap.2022.101179
Mason, A. N., Narcum, J. & Mason, K. (2021). Social media marketing gains importance after Covid-19. Cogent Business & Management, 8(1), 1870797. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/23311975.2020.1870797
Mataruna, L., Khan, M. S., Al-Shibini, M. A. H. M. S., Al-Katheeri, S., Ali, A. M., Range, D. & Milla, A. C. (2021). TIFL Games in the Arab world: How the Baby Olympics is used as a pathway for sport promotion and Olympic education? Journal of Human Sport and Exercise, 16(1proc), S14-S22. https://www.doi.org/10.14198/jhse.2021.16.proc1.02
Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J., Altman, D. G. & Group, T. P. (2009). Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses: The PRISMA Statement. PLoS Medicine, 6(7), e1000097. https://www.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000097
Oviedo-García, M. A., Muñoz-Expósito, M., Castellanos-Verdugo, M. & Sancho-Mejías, M. (2014). Metric proposal for customer engagement in Facebook. Journal of Research in Interactive Marketing, 8(4), 327-344. https://www.doi.org/10.1108/JRIM-05-2014-0028
Pardal-Refoyo, J. L. & Pardal-Peláez, B. (2020). Anotaciones para estructurar una revisión sistemática. Revista ORL, 11(2), 155-160. https://www.doi.org/10.14201/orl.22882
Pletikosa Cvijikj, I. & Michahelles, F. (2013). Online engagement factors on Facebook brand pages. Social network analysis and mining, 3(4), 843-861. https://www.doi.org/10.1007/s13278-013-0098-8
Prado-Gascó, V., Calabuig Moreno, F., Añó Sanz, V., Núñez-Pomar, J. & Crespo Hervás, J. (2017). To post or not to post: Social Media sharing and sporting event performance. Psychology & Marketing, 34(11), 995-1003. https://www.doi.org/10.1002/mar.21038
Qian, T. Y. (2022). Watching sports on Twitch? A study of factors influencing continuance intentions to watch Thursday Night Football co-streaming. Sport Management Review, 25(1), 59-80. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/14413523.2021.1930700
Santomier, J. P., Hogan, P. I. & Kunz, R. (2016). The 2012 London Olympics: Innovations in ICT and social media marketing. Innovation-Management Policy & Practice, 18(3), 251-269. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/14479338.2016.1237305
Santos, Z. R., Cheung, C. M. K., Coelho, P. S. & Rita, P. (2022). Consumer engagement in social media brand communities: A literature review. International Journal of Information Management, 63, 102457. https://www.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijinfomgt.2021.102457
Schaufeli, W. B. (2013). What is engagement? In C. Truss, K. Alfes, R. Delbridge, A. Shantz & E. Soane (Eds.), Employee Engagement in Theory and Practice (pp. 29-49). London: Routledge.
Schivinski, B., Christodoulides, G. & Dabrowski, D. (2016). Measuring Consumers’ Engagement with Brand-Related Social-Media Content: Development and Validation of a Scale that Identifies Levels of Social-Media Engagement with Brands. Journal of Advertising Research, 56(1), 64-80. https://www.doi.org/10.2501/JAR-2016-004
Shermak, J. L. (2018). Scoring Live Tweets on the Beat. Examining Twitter engagement in sports newspaper beat reporters’ live coverage. Digital Journalism, 6(1), 118-136. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/21670811.2017.1338144
Shibuya, Y., Hamm, A. & Cerratto Pargman, T. (2022). Mapping HCI research methods for studying social media interaction: A systematic literature review. Computers in Human Behavior, 129, 107131. https://www.doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2021.107131
Singh, A. & Sharma, R. (2022). Fan engagement on select social media platforms: A study of the Indian Premier League. Journal of Cultural Marketing Strategy, 6(2), 176-186(11).
So, K. K. F., Kim, H. & King, C. (2021). The thematic evolution of customer engagement research: A comparative systematic review and bibliometric analysis. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 33(10), 3585-3609. https://www.doi.org/10.1108/IJCHM-04-2021-0470
Stegmann, P., Nagel, S. & Ströbel, T. (2021). The digital transformation of value co-creation: A scoping review towards an agenda for sport marketing research. European Sport Management Quarterly, 1-28. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/16184742.2021.1976241
Taberner, I. & Juncà, A. (2021). Small-scale sport events as place branding platforms: A content analysis of osona’s projected destination image through event-related pictures on instagram. Sustainability, 13(21), 12255. https://www.doi.org/10.3390/su132112255
Tereso, D., Moro, S., Ramos, P., Calapez, T., Costa, J. M. & Ratts, T. (2022). Using Profanity and Negative Sentiments: An Analysis of Ultimate Fighting Championship Fighters’ Trash Talk on Fans’ Social Media Engagement and Viewership Habits. International Journal of Sport Communication, 15(2), 93-102. https://www.doi.org/10.1123/ijsc.2021-0080
Toffoletti, K., Pegoraro, A. & Comeau, G. S. (2021). Self-Representations of Women’s Sport Fandom on Instagram at the 2015 FIFA Women’s World Cup. Communication & Sport, 9(5), 695-717. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/2167479519893332
Trivedi, J., Soni, S. & Kishore, A. (2021). Exploring the Role of Social Media Communications in the Success of Professional Sports Leagues: An Emerging Market Perspective. Journal of Promotion Management, 27(2), 306-331. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/10496491.2020.1829774
Trunfio, M. & Rossi, S. (2021). Conceptualising and measuring social media engagement: A systematic literature review. Italian Journal of Marketing, 2021(3), 267-292. https://www.doi.org/10.1007/s43039-021-00035-8
Vale, L. & Fernandes, T. (2018). Social media and sports: Driving fan engagement with football clubs on Facebook. Journal of Strategic Marketing, 26(1), 37-55. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/0965254X.2017.1359655
Van Doorn, J., Lemon, K. N., Mittal, V., Nass, S., Pick, D., Pirner, P. & Verhoef, P. C. (2010). Customer engagement behavior: Theoretical foundations and research directions. Journal of service research, 13(3), 253-266. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/1094670510375599
Vivek, S. D., Beatty, S. E., Dalela, V. & Morgan, R. M. (2014). A Generalized Multidimensional Scale for Measuring Customer Engagement. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 22(4), 401-420. https://www.doi.org/10.2753/MTP1069-6679220404
Wäsche, H., Dickson, G., Woll, A. & Brandes, U. (2017). Social network analysis in sport research: An emerging paradigm. European Journal for Sport and Society, 14(2), 138-165. https://www.doi.org/10.1080/16138171.2017.1318198
Webster, J. & Watson, R. T. (2002). Analyzing the Past to Prepare for the Future: Writing a Literature Review. MIS Quarterly, 26(2), 13-23.
Weimann-Saks, D., Ariel, Y. & Elishar-Malka, V. (2020). Social second screen: WhatsApp and watching the World Cup. Communication & Sport, 8(1), 123-141. https://www.doi.org/10.1177/2167479518821913
Yoshida, M., Gordon, B., Nakazawa, M. & Biscaia, R. (2014). Conceptualization and measure-ment of fan engagement: Empirical evidence from a professional sport context. Journal of Sport Management, 28(4), 399-417. https://www.doi.org/10.1123/jsm.2013-0199
Zeren, D., Erkan, I. & Acikgoz, F. (2022). Sport marketing and social media strategies: A literature review and research agenda. In Ruth M. Crabtree & James J. ZhangS (Eds.), Sport Marketing in a Global Environment (pp. 126-141). London: Routledge.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.
By submitting the article for evaluation and subsequent publication in Communication & Society, the AUTHOR exclusively assigns the rights of public communication, reproduction, distribution and sale for commercial exploitation to the University of Navarra through its Publications Service, for the maximum legal term in force -the entire life of the author and seventy years after his death or declaration of death-, in any country, and in any of the current and future edition modalities, both in print and electronic versions.
In the event that the article is not accepted for publication , this transfer of rights lapses with the communication of the refusal to the AUTHOR.
The AUTHOR affirms that the article is unpublished, that it has not been sent simultaneously to another publication medium and that the rights have not been transferred exclusively previously. He is responsible to the University of Navarra through its Publications Service for the authorship and originality of his work, as well as for all pecuniary charges that may arise for the University of Navarra through its Publications Service, in favor of third parties due to actions, claims or conflicts arising from the breach of obligations by the AUTHOR.