Berta García-Orosa e-mail(Login required) , Xosé López e-mail(Login required)

Main Article Content


Berta García-Orosa e-mail(Login required)
Xosé López e-mail(Login required)


This paper studies the language of political actors on social networks from the concept of digital language with a communicative perspective. Attention is paid to tweets by political parties, public administrations and civil society related to Catalan politics over the last eight months. The main trends of digital language are confirmed for political language on Twitter, but are relativized by the majority use of a more formal register. In addition, the political language appears as hybrid, heterogeneous, multimodal, a continuation of the offline arena and with little narrative innovation. Within these general characteristics, the activation of innovative linguistic orthographic, lexical, syntactic or coherence elements draws specific strategies for each actor, without common features for the sectors but shows that they do converge at specific moments forming sociolects that seek to promote belonging to a community and protest against specific facts or the status quo.


Political communication, social networks, language, Twitter, organizational communication, digital communication, political parties, associations, companies.


Adami, E. (2016). Multimodality. In O. García, N. Flores & M. Spotti, The Oxford Handbook of Language and Society. The Oxford Handbook of Language and Society (pp. 451-473). Oxford: Oxford Handbook online.

Altman, E. & Portilla, Y. (2012). Geo-linguistic fingerprint and the evolution of languages in Twitter. In Advances in Social Networks Analysis and Mining (ASONAM), 2012 (pp. 1-6). IEEE/ACM International Conference on, IEEE. Retrieved from

Álvarez-Noreña Cueva, E. (2013). La creatividad del lenguaje como arma social. Diversité et identité culturelle en Europe, 3, 83-94.

Ballesteros-Herencia, C. & Díez-Garrido, M. (2018). We need to talk. Engagement 2.0 on Facebook during the Spanish cyber campaign of December 2015. Communication & Society, 31(1), 169-193.

Bayerl, P. S. & Stoynov, L. (2016). Revenge by photoshop: Memefying police acts in the public dialogue about injustice. New media & society, 18 (6), 1006-1026.

Bolander, B & Locher, M. (2014). Doing sociolinguistic research on computer-mediated data: A review of four methodological issues. Discourse, Context & Media, 3, 14-26.

Brock, B., Huglen, M., Klumpp, J. & Howell, S. (2005). Making sense of political ideology. The power of language in democracy. Oxford: Rowman & Littlefield.

Campos-Domínguez, E. (2017). Twitter y la comunicación política. El profesional de la información, 26(5), 785-793.

Carrasco Polaino, R., Villar Cirujano, E. &Tejedor Fuentes, L. (2018). Twitter como herramienta de comunicación política en el contexto del referéndum independentista catalán: asociaciones ciudadanas frente a instituciones públicas. Icono 14, 16(1), 64-85.

Casero-Ripollés, A. (2015). Estrategias y prácticas comunicativas del activismo político en las redes sociales en España. Historia y Comunicación Social, 20(2), 535-550.

Casero-Ripollés, A., Feenstra, R. & Tormey, S. (2016). Old and New Media Logics in an Electoral Campaign. The Case of Podemos and the Two-Way Street Mediatization of Politics. The International Journal of Press/Politics, 21(3), 378-397. 10.1177/1940161216645340.

Castro Rojas, S., Pérez Rivera, L. & Amatta, J. M. (2016). El enjambre digital en la política argentina. Twitter en las campañas 2011-2013-2015. Rizoma, 4(1), 90-104. http://

Chadwick, A. (2013). The hybrid media system: Politics and power. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Coromina, Ó. (2017). The struggle for the story in political disputes. The case of the 9N participation process. El profesional de la información, 26(5), 884-893. https://

Crystal, D. (2002). El lenguaje e Internet. Madrid: Ediciones Akal.

Cunliffe, D., Morris, D. & Prys, C. (2013). Young bilinguals’ language behaviour in social networking sites: the use of welsh on Facebook. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 18(3), 339-361.

De Bot, K. & Stoessel, S. (2002). Introduction. Language change and social networks. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 153, 1-8. 10.1515/ijsl.2002.003.

Dediu, D., Janssen, R. & Moisik, S. (2017). Language is not isolated from its wider environment: vocal tract influences on the evolution of speech and language. Language & Communication, 54, 9-20.

Díaz Noci, J. (2009). Multimedia y modalidades de lectura: una aproximación al estado de la cuestión. Revista Comunicar, 7(33), 213-219. 013.

Eagleton, T. (1991). Ideology: an introduction. London: Verso.

Edelman, M. J. (1985). The symbolic uses of politics. Illinois: University of Illinois Press.

Enli, G. & Moe, H. (2013). Introduction to special issue: Social media and election campaigns–key tendencies and ways forward. Information, Communication & Society, 16(5), 637-645.

Eres Fernández, I. & Almeida Seemann, P. (2009). Un estudio sobre los cambios lingüísticos del español escrito en las charlas informales por Internet. Trabalhos em Linguística Aplicada, 48(1), 153-170. Foucault, M. (1981). Order of Discourse. In R. Young, Poststructuralist Reader (pp. 48-79). New York: Routledge.

Gander, P. (1999). Two myths about immersion in new storytelling media. Lund University Cognitive Studies. Retrieved from 228957892_Two_myths_about_immersion_in_new_storytelling_media.

García-Orosa, B., Vázquez-Sande, P. & López-García, X. (2017). Narrativas digitales de los principales partidos políticos de España, Francia, Portugal y Estados Unidos. El profesional de la información, 26(4), 589-600.

Georgakopoulou, A. (2011). On for drinkies?: Email cues of participant alignments. Language@ internet, 8(4).

Guerrero-Pico, M. & Scolari, C. (2016). Narrativas transmedia y contenidos generados por los usuarios: el caso de los crossovers., 8, 183-200. 10.7764/cdi.38.760.

Hamilton, J. (2016). Hybrid news practices. En T. Witschge, C. Anderson, D. Domingo & A. Hermida (Eds.), The SAGE handbook of digital journalism (pp. 164-178). London: SAGE.

Hernández-Santaolalla, V. & Rubio-Hernández, M. (2017). Fandom político en Twitter: La Cueva y los partidarios de Alberto Garzón en las elecciones generales españolas de 2015 y 2016. El Profesional de la Información, 26(5), 838-849. epi.2017.sep.06.

Herring, S. & Androutsopoulos, J. (2015). Computer-mediated discourse 2.0. In D. Tannen, H. E. Hamilton, & D. Schiffrin (Eds.), The handbook of discourse analysis, Second Edition (pp. 127-151). Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons.

Huffaker, D. & Calver, S. (2005). Gender, Identity and Language Use in Teenage Blogs. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 10(2). 6101.2005.tb00238.x.

Jenkins, H. (2003). Transmedia storytelling. Moving characters from books to films to video games can make them stronger and more compelling. MIT technology review, January 15.

Ke, J., Gong, T. & Wang, W. (2008). Language change and social networks. Communications in Computational Physics, 3(4), 935-949.

López-García, G. (2016). ‘New’ vs ‘old’ leaderships: the campaign of Spanish general eleccions 2015 on Twitter. Communicaciónn & society, 29(3), 149-168. https://

López-Meri, A. (2016). Twitter-retórica para captar votos en campaña electoral. El caso de las elecciones de Cataluña de 2015. Comunicación y hombre, 12, 97-118. https://

Maarek, P. (2014). Politics 2.0: New forms of digital political marketing and political communication. Trípodos, 34, 13-22.

Masip, P., Díaz-Noci, J., Domingo, D., Micó-Sanz, J. L l. & Salaverría, R. (2010). Investigación internacional sobre ciberperiodismo: hipertexto, interactividad, multimedia y convergencia. El Profesional de la Información, 19(6), 568-577. 10.3145/epi.2010.nov.02.

Mazzoleni, G. (2014). La comunicación política. Madrid: Alianza.

Metoyer-Duran, Ch. (1993). Gatekeepers in Ethnolinguistic Communities. Information Management, Policy and Services. New Jersey: Ablex Publishing Corporation, Norwood.

Minin-White, D. (2017). Political Speech, Doublespeak, And Critical-Thinking Skills In American Education. School of Education Student Capstone Projects, 83, article 4.

Mocanu, D., Baronchelli, A., Perra, N., Gonçalves, B., Zhang, Q. & Vespignani, A. (2013). The Twitter of babel: Mapping world languages through microblogging platforms. PloS one, 8(4).

Orkibi, E. (2015). New politics’, new media–new political language? A rhetorical perspective on candidates’ self-presentation in electronic campaigns in the 2013 Israeli elections. Israel Affairs, 21(2), 277-292.

Park, J., Baek, Y. M. & Cha, M. (2014). Cross-cultural comparison of nonverbal cues in emoticons on twitter: Evidence from big data analysis. Journal of Communication, 64(2), 333-354.

Percastre-Mendizábal, S., Pont-Sorribes, C. & Codina, L. (2017). A sample design proposal for the analysis of Twitter in political communication. El profesional de la información, 26(4), 579-588.

Pérez García, D. (2003). Técnicas de comunicación política. El lenguaje de los partidos políticos. Madrid: Tecnos.

Rosa, J. (2016). Racializing language, regimenting Latinas/os: Chronotope, social tense, and American raciolinguistic futures. Language & Communication, 46, 106-117.

Sampietro, A. (2016). Emoticonos y emojis: Análisis de su historia, difusión y uso en la comunicación digital actual. Tesis doctoral. Universidad de Valencia.

Scolari, C. (2014). Narrativas transmedia: nuevas formas de comunicar en la era digital. In J. Celaya (Dir.), Anuario AC/ de cultura digital (pp. 71-81). Madrid: Acción Cultural Española.

Shah, D., Culver, K., Hanna, A., Macafee, T. & Yang, J. (2015). Computacional approaches to online political expression: Rediscovering a ‘science of the social’. In S. Coleman & D. Freelon (Eds.), Handbook of digital politics (pp. 281-305). Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar.

Shin, D. & Biocca, F. (2017). Exploring immersive experience in journalism. New Media&Society, 19(11), 1-24. Solé, R., Corominas, B. & Fortuny, J. (2013). Lenguaje, redes y evolución. Investigación y Ciencia, 440, 60-67.

Thompson, E. (1984). Studies in the Theory of Ideology. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Thurlow, C., Lengel, L. & Tomic, A. (2004). Computer-Mediated Communication. Social Interaction and the Internet. London: Sage.

Torrego-González, A. (2017). Eskriibo en el Tuenti komo pronunciioh. Apuntes sobre la ortografía en una red social. Tarbiya, revista de Investigación e Innovación Educativa, 41, 33-53.

van Dijk, T. A. (1994). Discurso, Poder y Cognición social. Cuadernos, 2. Retrieved from,%20poder%20y%20cognici%F3n%20soci al.pdf.

van Dijk, T. A. (1996). Análisis del discurso ideológico. Versión, 6(10), 15-43.

van Hout, T.& Burger, P. (2016). Mediatization and the language of journalism. In O. García, N. Flores & M. Spotti, The Oxford Handbook of Language and Society. The Oxford Handbook of Language and Society (pp. 489-504). Oxford: Oxford Handbook online.

Vázquez-Cano, E., Mengual-Andrés, S. & Roig-Vila, R. (2015). Análisis lexicométrico de la especificidad de la escritura digital del adolescente en WhatsApp. Revista de lingüística teórica y aplicada, 53(1), 83-105.

Vazquez, F., Castelló, X. & San Miguel, M. (2010). Agent based models of language competition: macroscopic descriptions and order-disorder transitions. Journal of Statistical Mechanics: Theory and Experiment, 4. 5468/2010/04/P04007.

Vulchanova, M., Baggio, G., Cangelosi, A. & Smith, L. (2017). Editorial: Language Development in the Digital Age. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 11, 447.

Wiggins, B. & Bowers, B. (2015). Memes as genre: A structurational analysis of the memescape. New media & society, 17(11), 1886-1906. 10.1177/1461444814535194.

Woolard, K. (1998). Language ideology as a field of inquiry. In B. Schieffelin, K. Woolard & P. Kroskrity (Eds.), Language ideologies: Practice and theory (pp. 3-47). New York: Oxford University Press.

Yus, F. (2010). Ciberpragmática 2.0. Nuevos usos del lenguaje en Internet. Barcelona: Ariel.


Search GoogleScholar


Article Details

Special Issue: Credibility and Trust in Post-Truth Times and the Network Society